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Ammonia-Annealed TiO2 as a Negative Electrode Material in Li-Ion Batteries: N Doping or Oxygen Deficiency?

Authors

  • Dr. Edgar Ventosa,

    Corresponding author
    1. Analytische Chemie - Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany), Fax: (+49) 2343214683
    • Analytische Chemie - Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany), Fax: (+49) 2343214683

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  • Dr. Wei Xia,

    1. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Dr. Stefan Klink,

    1. Analytische Chemie - Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany), Fax: (+49) 2343214683
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  • Dr. Fabio La Mantia,

    1. Center for Electrochemical Sciences - CES, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Dr. Bastian Mei,

    1. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Prof. Martin Muhler,

    1. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Prof. Wolfgang Schuhmann

    1. Analytische Chemie - Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany), Fax: (+49) 2343214683
    2. Center for Electrochemical Sciences - CES, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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Abstract

Improving the chemical diffusion of Li ions in anatase TiO2 is essential to enhance its rate capability as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries. Ammonia annealing has been used to improve the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12. Similarly, ammonia annealing improves the Li-ion storage performance of anatase TiO2 in terms of the stability upon cycling and the C-rate capability. In order to distinguish whether N doping or oxygen deficiencies, both introduced upon ammonia annealing, are more relevant for the observed improvement, a systematic electrochemical study was performed. The results suggest that the creation of oxygen vacancies upon ammonia annealing is the main reason for the improvement of the stability and C-rate capability.

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