Chemistry - A European Journal

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 8

February 18, 2011

Volume 17, Issue 8

Pages 2285–2531

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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    1. Cover Picture: How the Colourless ‘Nonfluorescent’ Chlorophyll Catabolites Rust (Chem. Eur. J. 8/2011) (page 2285)

      Markus Ulrich, Dr. Simone Moser, Dr. Thomas Müller and Prof. Dr. Bernhard Kräutler

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201190034

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      In fall leaves chlorophyll is degraded to the abundant colourless ‘nonfluorescent’ chlorophyll catabolites. As described in the Communication by B. Kräutler and co-workers on page 2330 ff., ‘nonfluorescent’ chlorophyll catabolites readily oxidize to yellow and red tetrapyrroles. These new coloured plant pigments may also contribute to the fall colours.

  2. Inside Cover

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
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    1. Inside Cover: Crystalline-State cis-to-trans Transformation of a Two-Dimensional Spin-Crossover System (Chem. Eur. J. 8/2011) (page 2286)

      Dr. Xin Bao, Peng-Hu Guo, Dr. Jun-Liang Liu, Ji-Dong Leng and Prof. Dr. Ming-Liang Tong

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201190035

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      Thermal-drivencis-to-trans supramolecular isomerization without losing crystallinity was first discovered in a two-dimensional coordination polymer system of [FeII(2,4-bpt)2]⋅xH2O (2,4-bpt=3-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole), confirmed by PXRD, DSC, IR, EA, and Raman spectra. Gloriously, both samples are spin crossover (SCO) activists, but have totally distinct transition behaviors, namely, the cis sample exhibits a gradual and incomplete SCO nature, whereas the trans sample turns into an abrupt and complete one, as described by M.-L. Tong et al. on page 2335 ff.

  3. Graphical Abstract

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
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  4. News

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  5. Review

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    6. Review
    7. Communications
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    1. Chalcogens

      Naphthalene and Related Systems peri-Substituted by Group 15 and 16 Elements (pages 2302–2328)

      Dr. Petr Kilian, Dr. Fergus R. Knight and Prof. Dr. J. Derek Woollins

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001750

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      Can atoms be forced to love each other? A recent brain scientists study has shown there really is a thin line between love and hate—at least in the brain. The review on peri-substituted naphthalenes discusses attraction versus repulsion, that is, “love and hate”, on a molecular level between atoms forced together to sub-van der Waals distances.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    1. New Plant Pigments

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      How the Colourless ‘Nonfluorescent’ Chlorophyll Catabolites Rust (pages 2330–2334)

      Markus Ulrich, Dr. Simone Moser, Dr. Thomas Müller and Prof. Dr. Bernhard Kräutler

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003313

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      Coloured chlorophyll catabolites: Yellow and red tetrapyrroles are formed when the colourless ‘nonfluorescent’ chlorophyll catabolites decompose in the presence of light and air. Such coloured pigments derived from the breakdown of chlorophyll may also occur in senescent leaves, in which they may contribute to the fascinating ‘fall’ colours.

    2. Coordination Polymers

      Crystalline-State cis-to-trans Transformation of a Two-Dimensional Spin-Crossover System (pages 2335–2339)

      Dr. Xin Bao, Peng-Hu Guo, Dr. Jun-Liang Liu, Ji-Dong Leng and Prof. Dr. Ming-Liang Tong

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003359

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      All in a spin: Thermal-driven cis-to-trans supramolecular isomerization was first discovered in a two-dimensional coordination polymer system of [FeII(2,4-bpt)2]⋅xH2O, the spin-crossover properties of which were dramatically changed from a gradual incomplete type to an abrupt complete type.

    3. Conformation Analysis

      Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of α,β-Difluoro-γ-amino Acid Derivatives (pages 2340–2343)

      Dr. Luke Hunter, Prof. Katrina A. Jolliffe, Dr. Meredith J. T. Jordan, Dr. Paul Jensen and Dr. Rene B. Macquart

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003320

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      Shape control: Synthetic access has been achieved to all possible stereoisomers of the α,β-difluoro-γ-amino acid motif. These novel building blocks can readily be coupled to other amino acids, and the resulting peptides display unique conformational behavior depending on the fluorine stereochemistry. The differences in peptide conformation can be rationalized in terms of the various stereoelectronic effects associated with C[BOND]F bonds.

    4. Supramolecular Chemistry

      Self-Sorting of Water-Soluble Cucurbituril Pseudorotaxanes (pages 2344–2348)

      Dr. Wei Jiang, Qi Wang, Igor Linder, Fabian Klautzsch and Prof. Dr. Christoph A. Schalley

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003194

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      Social self-sorting: A binary and a ternary pseudorotaxane, which both contain cucurbituril homologues and share methylviologen as the guest, can self-sort. These two self-sorting pseudorotaxanes were further integrated into one well-defined hetero[3]pseudorotaxane with one symmetrical axle that exclusively selects a pair of different cucurbiturils in a social self-sorting process. Vice versa, a “necklace” of three cucurbit[8]urils is formed, which bind two complementary axles inside their cavities with high fidelity.

    5. C[BOND]C coupling

      Alkynylcyclopropanes from Terminal Alkynes through Consecutive Coupling to Fischer Carbene Complexes and Selective Propargylene Transfer (pages 2349–2352)

      Prof. Dr. José Barluenga, Eva Tudela, Dr. Rubén Vicente, Dr. Alfredo Ballesteros and Prof. Dr. Miguel Tomás

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003334

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      Fis(c)hing for cyclization! The sequential treatment of an acetylide with a Fischer carbene complex and an alkene/diene yields alkynylcyclopropanes with a wide substitution range. The intramolecular process provides 1-alkynylbicyclo[3.1.0]cyclohexanes by starting from 1,6-enynes. A non-heteroatom-stabilized metal alkynylcarbene is responsible for the selective transfer of the propargylene unit.

    6. C[BOND]H Activation

      Pd-Catalyzed Direct and Selective C[BOND]H Functionalization: C3-Acetoxylation of Indoles (pages 2353–2357)

      Qiang Liu, Gang Li, Hong Yi, Pan Wu, Jie Liu and Prof. Aiwen Lei

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002547

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      The chosen one! A novel Pd-catalyzed direct and selective C3-acetoxylation of indole derivatives has been accomplished (see scheme). This selective C[BOND]H activation reaction was implemented without the assistance of directing groups and took place under mild conditions. The kinetic study revealed that the reaction was zero-order with respect to the oxidant and first-order with respect to the indole derivatives.

    7. Asymmetric Catalysis

      Direct Asymmetric Michael Addition of Cyclic N-Sulfonylimines to α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes (pages 2358–2360)

      Xiao-Feng Xiong, Hang Zhang, Jing Peng and Prof. Dr. Ying-Chun Chen

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002592

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      Reversal of reactivity: A chemoselective direct asymmetric Michael addition of cyclic N-sulfonylimines to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes has been developed by employing chiral iminium catalysis. A tandem base-catalyzed tautomerization of the imine group/hemiaminal formation/dehydroxylation process of the Michael adducts efficiently affords valuable tricyclic piperidine derivatives in moderate to excellent enantioselectivity.

    8. Main Group Chemistry

      On the Reaction of Elemental Tin with Alcohols: A Straightforward Approach to Tin(II) and Tin(IV) Alkoxides and Related Tinoxo Clusters (pages 2361–2364)

      Thomas Zöller, Dr. Ljuba Iovkova-Berends, Christina Dietz, Dr. Thorsten Berends and Prof. Dr. Klaus Jurkschat

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003338

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      Extending the classical reactivity pattern of tin: Elemental tin reacts with alcohols to give, depending on the identity of the alcohol and the reaction conditions, a variety of tin alcoholates and tinoxo clusters (see scheme).

    9. Asymmetric Catalysis

      Asymmetric Crossed-Conjugate Addition of Nitroalkenes to Enones by a Chiral Bifunctional Diamine Organocatalyst (pages 2365–2368)

      Min Wang, Dr. Lili Lin, Jian Shi, Dr. Xiaohua Liu, Yulong Kuang and Prof. Dr. Xiaoming Feng

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002961

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      Cooperative catalysis: An easily available new type of primary–secondary diamine was synthesized as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst in the asymmetric crossed-conjugate addition of β,β-dialkyl nitroalkenes to α,β-unsaturated acyclic or cyclic ketones for the first time. The wide substrate scope, excellent yield (up to 96 %) and enantioselectivity (up to 99 % enantiomeric excess (ee)) under mild reaction conditions provides a potential method for the formation of allylic nitro compounds (see scheme).

    10. Heterometallic Gels

      Heterometallic Coordination Polymer Gels Based on a Rigid, Bifunctional Ligand (pages 2369–2372)

      Dr. Jianyong Zhang, Shubin Chen, Shenglin Xiang, Jing Huang, Prof. Liuping Chen and Prof. Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003070

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      Palladium and partner gels: A novel approach toward heterometallic gel materials is presented. A group of heterometallic coordination polymer gels have been prepared by simply mixing a rigid bifunctional ligand, Pd2+ and TMn+ (see graphic, TMn+=Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+). The nanofibre has a profound effect on the redox properties of the metal ions (Cu2+).

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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    1. DNA Nanosensors

      Colorimetric Detection of DNA by Modulation of Thrombin Activity on Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2374–2380)

      Jyun-Wei Jian and Prof. Chih-Ching Huang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002825

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      Worth their weight in gold! A colorimetric, non-cross-linking aggregation-based gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) probe (see graphic) has been developed for the detection of DNA and the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) through sandwich DNA hybridization to modulate the enzymatic activity of thrombin.

    2. Graphene

      Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Single- and Few-Layer Graphene by the Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2381–2387)

      Jisook Lee, Dr. Sangdeok Shim, Prof. Bongsoo Kim and Prof. Hyeon Suk Shin

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002027

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      Single or few? Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of single- and few-layer graphene by the use of Au deposition was investigated. The enhancement factor for the G band in single-layer graphene was higher than that in few-layer graphene.

    3. Organic Frameworks

      The Structure of Layered Covalent-Organic Frameworks (pages 2388–2392)

      Binit Lukose, Dr. Agnieszka Kuc and Prof. Dr. Thomas Heine

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001290

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      Favorite stacking: Coulomb interaction between the layers of covalent-organic frameworks (COF) leads to a modification of the stacking of layers in 2D COFs. Serrated (middle) and inclined (right) stackings are found to be more stable than an AA stacking arrangement (left). X-ray diffraction patterns of these structures are more similar to experimental patterns.

    4. Conformation Analysis

      An Efficient Approach for the Characterization of Mucin-Type Glycopeptides: The Effect of O-Glycosylation on the Conformation of Synthetic Mucin Peptides (pages 2393–2404)

      Ryo Hashimoto, Dr. Naoki Fujitani, Dr. Yasuhiro Takegawa, Dr. Masaki Kurogochi, Dr. Takahiko Matsushita, Dr. Kentaro Naruchi, Dr. Naoki Ohyabu, Dr. Hiroshi Hinou, Dr. Xiao Dong Gao, Dr. Naomi Manri, Dr. Hiroyuki Satake, Dr. Akihito Kaneko, Dr. Takeshi Sakamoto and Prof. Shin-Ichiro Nishimura

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002754

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      Peptides: An efficient approach, by combining MS and NMR spectroscopy, is reported that allows for the identification of O-glycosylation site(s) and the effect of O-glycosylation on peptide backbone structures during enzymatic mucin domain assembly (see figure).

    5. DNA Folding

      Selection of G-Quadruplex Folding Topology with LNA-Modified Human Telomeric Sequences in K+ Solution (pages 2405–2413)

      Dr. Devranjan Pradhan, Lykke H. Hansen, Prof. Dr. Birte Vester and Prof. Dr. Michael Petersen

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001961

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      Rational engineering: By using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified nucleotides, the equilibrium between antiparallel and parallel G-quadruplex folding topologies can be modulated and completely shifted towards a parallel topology (see figure). The change in topology is driven by a combination of the C3′-endo puckering of LNA nucleotides and their preference for the anti glycosidic conformation.

    6. Donor–Acceptor Systems

      Exceptionally Large Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Response in Donor–Graphene Nanoribbon–Acceptor Systems (pages 2414–2419)

      Dr. Zhong-Jun Zhou, Dr. Xiao-Ping Li, Dr. Fang Ma, Dr. Zhen-Bo Liu, Prof. Zhi-Ru Li, Prof. Xu-Ri Huang and Prof. Chia-Chung Sun

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001727

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      Bridging the gap: Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), serving as excellent conjugated bridges, have been introduced into donor (D)–conjugated bridge–acceptor (A) frameworks for the first time to give high-performance nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. D–GNR–A (in which D=NH2 and A=NO2; see figure) exhibits an exceptionally large static first hyperpolarizability.

    7. Helical Structures

      pH-Switchable Inversion of the Metal-Centered Chirality of Metallabenzenes: Opposite Stereodynamics in Reactions of Ruthenabenzene with L- and D-Cysteine (pages 2420–2427)

      Ran Lin, Dr. Hong Zhang, Dr. Shunhua Li, Leiqi Chen, Prof. Dr. Weiguang Zhang, Prof. Dr. Ting Bin Wen, Prof. Hui Zhang and Prof. Dr. Haiping Xia

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001867

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      Make it turn! A phenanthroline-derived ruthenabenzene selectively binds cysteine in aqueous solution at physiological pH and then undergoes a dynamic helicity inversion of the metal configuration. This helicity inversion process could be conveniently controlled by a simple pH adjustment. The replacement of the L-cysteine with the D form results in an inverted stereodynamic effect (see image).

    8. Graphene

      Visible-Light-Induced Dye Degradation over Copper-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide (pages 2428–2434)

      Dr. Zhigang Xiong, Li Li Zhang and Prof. Xiu Song Zhao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002906

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      Dyeing out: An approach to modifying graphene to prepare optically active photocatalysts is presented. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based composite materials display excellent photocatalytic performance in degrading the dye rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation (see picture; ROSs: reactive oxygen species). The copper species act as an electron relay.

    9. Supramolecular Polymers

      Assembly of a Self-Complementary Monomer: Formation of Supramolecular Polymer Networks and Responsive Gels (pages 2435–2441)

      Yong-Sheng Su, Jia-Wei Liu, Yi Jiang and Prof. Chuan-Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002862

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      A sense of self: A self-complementary monomer that contained a macrotricyclic polyether and two dibenzylammonium moieties was found to assemble into chemically controlled supramolecular polymer networks (see figure) by intermolecular host–guest interactions. The polymer also showed gel properties.

    10. Molecular Diversity

      One-Pot Selective Syntheses of 5-Azaindoles through Zirconocene-Mediated Multicomponent Reactions with Three Different Nitrile Components and One Alkyne Component (pages 2442–2449)

      Shaoguang Zhang, Prof. Dr. Wen-Xiong Zhang, Jing Zhao and Prof. Dr. Zhenfeng Xi

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003119

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      Three different nitriles in order: 5-Azaindoles with either three different substituents at their 2-, 4,- and 6-positions or with two identical substituents at their 2- and 6-positions and a different one at the 4-position were obtained in a perfectly chemo- and regioselective manner through a zirconocene-mediated multicomponent coupling process (see scheme).

    11. Asymmetric Synthesis

      Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of γ-Substituted Vinyl Sulfones (pages 2450–2457)

      Dr. Rosa López, Maitane Zalacain and Prof. Dr. Claudio Palomo

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201003177

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      C[BOND]C bond formation versus elimination: Chiral secondary amines behave as highly efficient catalysts in the addition of base-sensitive β-nitroethyl sulfones to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (see scheme). The process, operationally very simple, allows the synthesis of γ-substituted vinyl sulfones with excellent enantioselectivities and provides a quick entry to building blocks that are very attractive for organic synthesis.

    12. Cluster Compounds

      Pure Trinuclear 4 f Single-Molecule Magnets: Synthesis, Structures, Magnetism and Ab Initio Investigation (pages 2458–2466)

      Fu-Sheng Guo, Jun-Liang Liu, Ji-Dong Leng, Zhao-Sha Meng, Dr. Zhuo-Jia Lin, Prof. Dr. Ming-Liang Tong, Prof. Dr. Song Gao, Dr. Liviu Ungur and Prof. Dr. Liviu F. Chibotaru

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002296

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      Keep it in the family: A new family of linear trinuclear lanthanide complexes have been synthesized (see picture), with both Dy3 and Tb3 families showing significant intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction (positive exchange 7.5 and 2.9 cm−1 for Dy3 and Tb3, respectively, extracted from the ab initio calculations), and the Dy3 family acting as single-molecule magnets with remarkably large energy barriers (39.69 K).

    13. Supported Catalysts

      Stereoselective Single (Copper) or Double (Platinum) Boronation of Alkynes Catalyzed by Magnesia-Supported Copper Oxide or Platinum Nanoparticles (pages 2467–2478)

      Abdessamad Grirrane, Avelino Corma and Hermenegildo Garcia

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002777

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      Catalyzed borylation: Magnesia-supported CuII or copper oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique regio- and stereoselectivity in the catalyzed monoborylation of alkynes with bis(pinacolato)diboron assisted by triphenylphosphine (see scheme). Supported platinum exhibits higher catalytic activities even in the absence of triphenylphosphine, but the products formed are the bis-boronated alkene.

    14. Photophysics

      One-Photon Photophysics and Two-Photon Absorption of 4-[9,9-Di(2-ethylhexyl)-7-diphenylaminofluoren-2-yl]-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine and Their Platinum Chloride Complexes (pages 2479–2491)

      Dr. Zhiqiang Ji, Dr. Yunjing Li, Dr. Timothy M. Pritchett, Nikolay S. Makarov, Dr. Joy E. Haley, Zhongjing Li, Dr. Mikhail Drobizhev, Dr. Aleksander Rebane and Dr. Wenfang Sun

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001449

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      One the count of three: The one-photon photophysics and two-photon absorption of three dipolar D-π-A terpyridine ligands (e.g., 1 L) and their platinum chloride complexes (e.g., 1) with different linkers between the donor and acceptor were investigated. All of the ligands and complexes are emissive at room temperature and 77 K, and exhibit excited-state absorption and two-photon absorption.

    15. Suzuki–Miyaura Reactions

      Kinetic Data for the Transmetalation/Reductive Elimination in Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Reactions: Unexpected Triple Role of Hydroxide Ions Used as Base (pages 2492–2503)

      Dr. Christian Amatore, Dr. Anny Jutand and Gaëtan Le Duc

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001911

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      Three roles for hydroxide: The base OH plays a triple role in Suzuki–Miyaura reactions (see graphic): 1) formation of [ArPd(OH)(PPh3)2] as the reactive species involved in the rate-determining transmetalation, 2) formation of unreactive Ar′B(OH)3 by reaction of OH with ArB(OH)2, and 3) unexpected acceleration of the reductive elimination by reaction of OH with the intermediate trans-[ArPdAr′(PPh3)2].

    16. Encapsulation

      pH-Responsive Poly(methacrylic acid)-Grafted Hollow Silica Vesicles (pages 2504–2509)

      Chee Leng Lay, Hui Ru Tan, Prof. Xuehong Lu and Dr. Ye Liu

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001403

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      Smart vesicles: pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA)-grafted hollow silica vesicles can encapsulate species securely at acidic conditions, such as pH 2, but release the species at pH 7.4 due to pH-induced changes in the solubility of PMAA stealth layers in aqueous solution (see figure).

    17. Phosphorus Heterocycles

      PdII and PtII Complexes of 2-(2′-Pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylphosphinine: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity (pages 2510–2517)

      Ariadna Campos-Carrasco, Leen E. E. Broeckx, Jarno J. M. Weemers, Dr. Evgeny A. Pidko, Dr. Martin Lutz, Dr. Anna M. Masdeu-Bultó, Prof. Dr. Dieter Vogt and Dr. Christian Müller

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002586

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      λ3-Phosphinine complexes: λ3-Phosphinine complexes of PdII and PtII have been prepared and for the first time structurally characterized by using the chelating P,N hybrid ligand 2-(2′-pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylphosphinine. Their reactivity towards methanol was investigated by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (see figure). The reaction with methanol proceeds regio- and stereoselectively by syn addition exclusively to one of the P=C double bonds.

    18. Quadrupolar Oligofluorenes

      Highly Efficient Multiphoton-Absorbing Quadrupolar Oligomers for Frequency Upconversion (pages 2518–2526)

      Xin Jiang Feng, Po Lam Wu, Dr. King Fai Li, Prof. Man Shing Wong and Prof. Kok Wai Cheah

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002227

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      Multiphoton-excited blue lasing: Symmetrically diphenylamino-disubstituted quadrupolar oligofluorenes emit remarkably intense and highly efficient multiphoton-excited, frequency-upconverted, deep blue lasing with a record lasing efficiency of 0.097 % and very narrow lasing spectra (full width at half maximum 4–6 nm). These results suggest that quadrupolar molecules/oligomers are superior for multiphoton-excited, frequency-upconverted lasing than their dipolar counterparts.

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      Preview: Chem. Eur. J. 9/2011 (page 2531)

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201190038

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