• pulsating flow;
  • spray nozzle;
  • fluidised bed;
  • liquid flowrate;
  • gas orifice restriction;
  • nozzle geometries


This article shows that spray nozzles pulsations can greatly improve the distribution of the sprayed liquid on fluidised bed particles, as characterised by a Nozzle Performance Index (NPI). Appropriate pulsations increased the NPI by nearly 100% under several operating conditions. This article compares four pulsating, gas atomised nozzles under various operating conditions. The performance of each nozzle was evaluated by measuring the electric conductance of a bed of silica sand particles fluidised by air, subsequent to liquid injection. Three sets of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of operating conditions on the performance of the four gas atomised nozzles. The first set determined the effect of the liquid flowrate, the second set measured the effect of a restriction orifice on the atomisation gas line and the third set studied the effect of the atomisation air to liquid ratio. Artificial nozzle spray pulsations were found to have similar beneficial effects with the different types of gas-atomised nozzles. © 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering