• cell recycle;
  • continuous flow microbial fuel cell;
  • electricity generation;
  • microalgae cell density


A complete microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating under continuous flow conditions and using Chlorella vulgaris at the cathode and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the anode was investigated for the production of electricity. The MFC was loaded with different resistances to characterise its power capabilities and voltage dynamics. A cell recycle system was also introduced to the cathode to observe the effect of microalgae cell density on steady-state power production and dynamic voltage profiles. At the maximum microalgae cell density of 2140 mg/L, a maximum power level of 0.6 mW/m2 of electrode surface area was achieved. The voltage difference between the cathode and anode decreased as the resistance decreased within the closed circuit, with a maximum open circuit voltage (infinite resistance) of 220 mV. The highest current flow of 1.0 mA/m2 of electrode surface area was achieved at an applied resistance of 250 Ω.