The polyaniline micro/nanostructure was prepared by a self-assembly process with molybdic acid as dopants in the presence of ammonium persulfate as the oxidant. It was found that the morphology of PANI micro/nanostructure was affected by the concentration of the dopant, that is, the morphology of PANI changed from nanofibers to co-existence of nanofibers and microspheres as the molar ratio of molybdic acid to aniline varied from 0.01 to 1.5. Under the same condition it was also found that the conductivity value of PANI enhanced from 4.58×10−3 S·cm−1 to 3.8×10−1 S·cm−1. The structure of PANI was characterized by FTIR and XRD which confirmed the presence of the molybdic acid in the PANI. The electrochemical characteristics of the PANI nanofibers were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The morphology of PANI in the process of polymerization was characterized by SEM. It was found that when the molar ratio of molybdic acid to aniline was 0.3, the morphology of PANI was co-existence of nanofibers and microspheres and the formation of microspheres was ahead of the nanofibers.