• 1
    American Heart Association: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2005 Update. Dallas, Texas: American Heart Association, 2005
  • 2
    Clark LT, Ferdinand KC, Flack JM, Gavin JR III, Hall WD, et al.: Coronary heart disease in African Americans. Heart Dis 2001;3:97108
  • 3
    The Expert Panel: Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Final report. Circulation 2002;106:31463421
  • 4
    Hutchinson RG, Watson RL, Davis CE, Barnes R, Brown S, et al.: Racial differences in risk factors for atherosclerosis: The ARIC Study. Angiology 1997;48:279290
  • 5
    Hall WD, Clark LT, Wenger NK, Wright JT Jr, Kumanyika SK, et al.: The metabolic syndrome in African Americans: A review. Ethn Dis 2003; 13:414428
  • 6
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. J Am Med Assoc 2002;287:356359
  • 7
    Smith SC Jr, Clark LT, Cooper RS, Daniels SR, Kumanyika SK, et al.: Discovering the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease: Minority Health Summit 2003: Report of the Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group. Circulation 2005;111:e134e139
  • 8
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, et al.: Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005;112:27352752
  • 9
    Lakka H-M, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, et al.: The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. J Am Med Assoc 2002;288:27092716
  • 10
    Ridker PM, Buring JE, Cook NR, Rifai N: C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: An 8-year follow-up of 14,719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 2003;107:391397
  • 11
    Hunt KJ, Resendez RG, Williams K, Haffner SM, Stern MP: National Cholesterol Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation 2004;110:12511257
  • 12
    Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Fors´n B, Lahti K, et al.: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24:683689
  • 14
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL: Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. J Am Med Assoc 2002;288:17231727
  • 15
    Okosun IS, Choi ST, Boltri JM, Parish DC, Chandra KMD, et al.: Trends of abdominal adiposity in white, black, and Mexican-American adults, 1988 to 2000. Obes Res 2003;11:10101017
  • 16
    Despres JP: The insulin resistance–dyslipidemic syndrome of visceral obesity: Effect on patients' risk. Obes Res 1998;6(suppl 1):8S17S
  • 17
    Haffner SM, D' Agostino R Jr, Goff D, Howard B, Festa A, et al.: LDL size in African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:22342240
  • 18
    Jones DW, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Heiss G, Hutchinson RG, et al.: Risk factors for coronary heart disease in African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987–1997. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:25652571
  • 19
    Liao Y, Cooper RS, McGee DL, Mensah GA, Ghali JK: The relative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, and ventricular dysfunction on survival among black adults. J Am Med Assoc 1995;273:15921597
  • 20
    Haffner SM, D' Agostino R Jr, Saad MF, Rewers M, Mykkanen L, et al.: Increased insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic African Americans and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites: The insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes 1996;45:742748
  • 21
    Khera A, McGuire DK, Murphy SA, Stanek HG, Das SR, et al.: Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:464469
  • 22
    Ridker PM: Rosuvastatin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: Rationale and design of the JUPITER trial. Circulation 2003;108:22922297
  • 23
    Folsom AR, Qamhieh HT, Flack JM, Hilner JE, Liu K, et al.: Plasma fibrinogen: Levels and correlates in young adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Am J Epidemiol 1993;138:10231036
  • 24
    Wong ND, Pio JR, Franklin SS, L' Italien GJ, Kamath TV, et al.: Preventing coronary events by optimal control of blood pressure and lipids in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:14211426
  • 25
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Bairey Merz CN, Brewer HB Jr, Clark LT, et al.: Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004;110: 227239
  • 26
    The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs. usual care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). J Am Med Assoc 2002;288:29983007
  • 27
    Ferdinand KC, Clark LT, Watson KE, Neal RC, Brown CD, et al.: for the ARIES Study Group: Comparison of efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in African-American patients in a six-week trial. Am J Cardiol 2006;97:229235