• 1
    American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. Dallas, Texas: American Heart Association; 2008. © 2008, American Heart Association.
  • 2
    Ho KK, Anderson KM, Kannel WB, Grossman W, Levy D. Survival after the onset of congestive heart failure in Framingham Heart Study subjects. Circulation 1993; 88: 107115.
  • 3
    Levy D, Kenchaiah S, Larson MG, et al. Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(18): 13971402.
  • 4
    Kannel, WB. Incidence and epidemiology of heart failure. Heart Failure Review 2000; 5(2): 167173.
  • 5
    Lee WH, Packer M. Prognostic importance of serum sodium concentration and its modification by converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Circulation 1986; 73(2): 257267.
  • 6
    Kearney MT, Fox KA, Lee AJ, et al. Predicting death due to progressive heart failure in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40: 18011808.
  • 7
    Klein L, O'Connor CM, Leimberger JD, et al. Lower serum sodium is associated with increased short-term mortality in hospitalized patients with worsening heart failure: results from the Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) Study. Circulation 2005; 111: 24542460.
  • 8
    Gheorghiade M, Rossi JS, Cotts W, et al. Characterization and prognostic value of persistent hyponatremia in patients with severe heart failure in the ESCAPE trial. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(18): 19982005.
  • 9
    Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM, Wong KL, Goin JE, Mancini DM. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplantation. Circulation 1997; 95: 26602667.
  • 10
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991; 325(5): 293302.
  • 11
    Foody JM, Farrell MH, Krumholz HM. β -Blockers in heart failure: scientific review. JAMA 2002; 287: 883889.
  • 12
    Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). American College of Cardiology Website. Available at: J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: e182.
  • 13
    Kearney MT, Nolan J, Lee AJ, et al. A prognostic index to predict long-term mortality in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure stabilized on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Eur J Heart Fail 2003; 5: 489497.