• 1
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08–4343). Rockville, MD.
  • 2
    Isner JM, Estes NA III, Thompson PD, et al. Acute cardiac events temporally related to cocaine abuse. N Engl J Med 1986; 315(23): 14381443.
  • 3
    Isner JM, Chokshi SK. Cardiovascular complications of cocaine. Curr Probl Cardiol 1991; 16(2): 89123.
  • 4
    Majid PA, Patel B, Kim HS. An angiographic and histologic study of cocaine-induced chest pain. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65(11): 812814.
  • 5
    Chiu YC, Brecht K, DasGupta DS, et al. Myocardial infarction with topical cocaine anesthesia for nasal surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1986; 112(9): 988990.
  • 6
    Siegel RK. Cocaine smoking. J Psychoactive Drugs 1982; 14(4): 271359.
  • 7
    Javaid JI, Fischman MW, Schuster CR, et al. Cocaine plasma concentration: relation to physiological and subjective effects in humans. Science 1978; 202(4364): 227228.
  • 8
    Weiss RD, Gawin FH. Protracted elimination of cocaine metabolites in long-term high-dose cocaine abusers. Am J Med 1988; 85(6): 879880.
  • 9
    Muscholl E. Effect of cocaine and related drugs on the uptake of noradrenaline by heart and spleen. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1961; 16: 352359.
  • 10
    Kloner RA, Hale S, Alker K, et al. The effects of acute and chronic cocaine use on the heart. Circulation 1992; 85(2): 407419.
  • 11
    Mouhaffel AH, Madu EC, Satmary WA, et al. Cardiovascular complications of cocaine. Chest 1995; 107(5): 14261434.
  • 12
    Qui Z, Morgan JP. Differential effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on intracellular Ca2+ and myocardial contraction in cardiac myocytes. Br J Pharmacol 1993; 109(2): 293298.
  • 13
    Mittleman MA, Mintzer D, Maclure M, et al. Triggering of myocardial infarction by cocaine. Circulation 1999; 99(21): 27372741.
  • 14
    Minor RL Jr, Scott BD, Brown DD, et al. Cocaine-induced myocardial infarction in patients with normal coronary arteries. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(10): 797806.
  • 15
    Dressler FA, Malekzadeh S, Roberts WC. Quantitative analysis of amounts of coronary arterial narrowing in cocaine addicts. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65(5): 303308.
  • 16
    Eichhorn EJ, Demian SE, Alvarez LG, et al. Cocaine-induced alterations in prostaglandin production in rabbit aorta. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19(3): 696703.
  • 17
    Vanhoutte PM, Shimokawa H. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor and coronary vasospasm. Circulation 1989; 80(1): 19.
  • 18
    Zimmerman FH, Gustafson GM, Kemp HG Jr. Recurrent myocardial infarction associated with cocaine abuse in a young man with normal coronary arteries: evidence for coronary artery spasm culminating in thrombosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987; 9(4): 964968.
  • 19
    Ascher EK, Stauffer JC, Gaasch WH. Coronary artery spasm, cardiac arrest, transient electrocardiographic Q waves and stunned myocardium in cocaine-associated acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1988; 61(11): 939941.
  • 20
    Gertz SD, Uretsky G, Wajnberg RS, et al. Endothelial cell damage and thrombus formation after partial arterial constriction: relevance to the role of coronary artery spasm in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Circulation 1981; 63(3): 476486.
  • 21
    Chokshi SK, Gal D, DeJesus S, Isner JM. Cocaine produces vasoconstriction of human coronary arteries: in vitro studies using coronary arteries obtained from freshly explanted human hearts. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 15: 215A.
  • 22
    Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Yancy CW Jr, et al. Cocaine-induced coronary-artery vasoconstriction. N Engl J Med 1989; 321(23): 15571562.
  • 23
    Flores ED, Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, et al. Effect of cocaine on coronary artery dimensions in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: enhanced vasoconstriction at sites of significant stenoses. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 16(1): 7479.
  • 24
    Chokshi SK, Moore R, Pandian NG, et al. Reversible cardiomyopathy associated with cocaine intoxication. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111(12): 10391040.
  • 25
    Mittleman RE, Wetli CV. Cocaine and sudden “natural” death. J Forensic Sci 1987; 32(1): 1119.
  • 26
    Rollingher IM, Belzberg AS, Macdonald IL. Cocaine-induced myocardial infarction. CMAJ 1986; 135(1): 4546.
  • 27
    Afonso L, Mohammad T, Thatai D. Crack whips the heart: a review of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100(6): 10401043.
  • 28
    Ferreira S, Crumb WJ Jr, Carlton CG, et al. Effects of cocaine and its major metabolites on the HERG-encoded potassium channel. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 299(1): 220226.
  • 29
    Littmann L, Monroe MH, Svenson RH. Brugada-type electrocardiographic pattern induced by cocaine. Mayo Clin Proc 2000; 75(8): 845849.
  • 30
    Singh S, Trivedi A, Adhikari T, et al. Cocaine-related acute aortic dissection: patient demographics and clinical outcomes. Can J Cardiol 2007; 23(14): 11311134.
  • 31
    Hsue PY, Salinas CL, Bolger AF, et al. Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine. Circulation 2002; 105: 15921595.
  • 32
    Hollander JE. The management of cocaine-associated myocardial ischemia. N Engl J Med 1995; 333(19): 12671272.
  • 33
    Hollander JE, Levitt MA, Young GP, et al. Effect of recent cocaine use on the specificity of cardiac markers for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1998; 135((Suppl. 12 pt 1): 245252.
  • 34
    Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction): developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons: endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Circulation 2007; 116(7): e148304.
  • 35
    Ferdinand KC. Substance abuse and hypertension. J Clin Hypertens 2000; 2(1): 3740.
  • 36
    Kern MJ, Ganz P, Horowitz JD, et al. Potentiation of coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1983; 67(6): 11781185.
  • 37
    Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Flores ED, et al. Potentiation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade. Ann Inter Med 1990; 112(12): 897903.
  • 38
    Dattilo PB, Hailpern SM, Fearon K, et al. Beta-blockers are associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction after cocaine use. Ann Emerg Med 2008; 51(2): 117125.
  • 39
    Nienaber CA, Eagle KA. Aortic dissection: new frontiers in diagnosis and management. Circulation 2003; 108: 772778.