STEMI Patients—The More You Bleed, the More You Die: A Comparison Between Classifications




In patients with acute coronary syndromes, an increase in hemorrhagic complications has been observed, and bleeding is now the most frequent noncardiac complication in these patients. Clinical trials and registries have used different scales to classify the severity of bleeding; so far, none of them has been developed for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention.


We analyzed data from our Intensive Cardiac Care Florence STEMI Registry, comprising 991 STEMI patients consecutively admitted to our intensive cardiac care unit after mechanical revascularization, to assess the clinical impact of both Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) classifications in identifying patients with major bleeding at higher risk for in-hospital mortality.


Major bleeding events occurred in 8.9% of patients (88/991) in the TIMI classification and in 17.2% of patients (170/991) in the ACUITY classification. Among patients with major bleeding classified according to ACUITY, 82 patients did not meet the TIMI criteria for major bleeding. These patients represent the so-called gray zone, where no transfusion was performed and only 1 patient died.


In STEMI patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention and receive dual antiplatelet therapy, TIMI is more capable than ACUITY in identifying patients with major bleeding at higher risk for early mortality. The presence of renal failure represents an independent predictor for major bleeding. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.