Transcatheter device closure (TCDC) and intraoperative device closure (IODC) have emerged as minimally invasive methods in the treatment of secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs), but the long-term safety and efficacy remains uncertain for the large ASDs.


TCDC may be as safe and efficacious as IODC for closure of large ASDs in terms of long-term clinical outcomes.


Ninety-two patients who had ASDs with a defect diameter of ≥30 mm were included in this study. The patients received either TCDC (n = 42) or IODC (n = 50). An Amplatzer septal occluder was used in both groups. The dumbbell-like device deploying technique was introduced in the TCDC group. Physical exams, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed preprocedurally and postprocedurally at the index follow-up visits.


The procedural immediate success rate was 97.6% for TCDC and 98.0% for IODC (P = 0.328). The rate of periprocedural complications was 9.5% for TCDC and 28.0% for IODC (P = 0.026). The mean hospital stay was 7.5 ± 2.7 days for TCDC and 11.9 ± 3.8 days for IODC (P < 0.001). For the mean follow-up of 5.4 ± 0.5 years, there were no cardiac deaths and late complications in either group. No significant residual shunts were documented, and symptoms were significantly improved in both groups. Right and left ventricular diameter, pulmonary artery diameter, and pulmonary systolic pressure were all significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05).


The present study confirmed the long-term safety and efficacy for closing a large ASD either by TCDC or IODC. Either of them could become an effective alternative to the surgery for large ASD closure.

The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.