• 1
    Goldman L, Winberg M, Weisberg M: A computer-derived protocol to aid in the diagnosis of emergency room patients with acute chest pain. N Engl J Med 1982; 307:588596
  • 2
    Lee TH, Rouan GW, Weisberg MC, Brand DA, Acampora D, Stasiulewicz C, Walshon J, Terranova G, Gottlieb L, Goldstein-Wayne B, Copen D, Daley K, Brandt AA, Mellors J, Jakubowski R, Cook EF, Goldman L: Clinical characteristics and natural history of patients with acute myocardial infarction sent home from the emergency room. Am J Cardiol 1987; 60:219224
  • 3
    Goldman L, Cook EF, Brand DA, Lee TH, Rouan GW, Weisberg MC, Acampora D, Stasiulewicz C, Walshon J, Terranova G, Gottlieb L, Kobernick M, Goldstein-Wayne B, Copen D, Daley K, Brandt AA, Jones D, Mellors J, Jakubowski R: A computer protocol to predict myocardial infarction in emergency department patients with chest pain. N Engl J Med 1988; 318:797803
  • 4
    Lee TH, Juarez G, Cook EF, Weisberg MC, Rouan GW, Brand DA, Goldman L: Ruling out acute myocardial infarction. A prospective multicenter validation of a 12-hour strategy for patients at low risk. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:12391246
  • 5
    Tatum JL, Jesse RL, Kontos MC, Nicholson CS, Schmidt KL, Roberts CS, Ornato JP: Comprehensive strategy for the evaluation and triage of the chest pain patient. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29:116125
  • 6
    Gaspoz JM, Lee TH, Weinstein MC, Cook EF, Goldman P, Komaroff AL, Goldman L: Cost-effectiveness of a new short-stay unit to “rule-out” acute myocardial infarction in low risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 24:12491259
  • 7
    Gibler WB, Walsh RA, Levy RC, Runyon JP: A rapid diagnostic and treatment center for patients with chest pain in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25:18
  • 8
    Fineberg RA, Scadden D, Goldman L: Care of patients with a low probability of acute myocardial infarction: Cost effectiveness of alternatives to coronary-care-unit admissions. N Engl J Med 1984; 310:13011307
  • 9
    Bahr RD: Growth in chest pain emergency departments throughout the United States: A cardiologist's spin on solving the heart attack problem. Coron Art Dis 1995; 6:827830
  • 10
    Braunwald E, Jones RH, Mark DB, Brown J: Diagnosing and managing unstable angina. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Circulation 1994; 90:613622
  • 11
    Langer A, Freeman MR, Armstrong PW: ST-segment shift in unstable angina: Pathophysiology and association with coronary anatomy and hospital outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 13:14951502
  • 12
    Bugiardini R, Borghi A, Pozzati A, Ruggeri A, Puddu P, Maseri A: Relation of severity of symptoms to transient myocardial ischemia and prognosis in unstable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 25:597604
  • 13
    Gomez MA, Anderson JL, Karagounis LA, Muhlestein JB, Mooers FB: An emergency department-based protocol for rapidly ruling out myocardial ischemia reduces hospital time and expense: Results of a randomized trial (ROMIO). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28:2533
  • 14
    Sahn DJ, DeMaria A, Kisslo J, Weyman A: Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: Results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements. Circulation 1978; 58:10721083
  • 15
    Schiller NB, Shah PM, Crawford M, De Maria A, Devereux R, Feigenbaum H, Gutgesell H, Reichek N, Sahn D, Schnittger I, Silverman NH, Tajik AJ: Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1989; 2:358371
  • 16
    Nomenclature and criteria for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease: Report of the Joint International Society and Federation of Cardiology/World Health Organization Task Force on Standardization of Clinical Nomenclature. Circulation 1979; 59:607609
  • 17
    Kirk JD, Turnipseed S, Lewis WR, Amsterdam EA: Evaluation of chest pain in low risk patients presenting to the emergency department: The role of immediate exercise testing. Ann Emerg Med 1998; 32:17
  • 18
    Krucoff MW, Croll MA, Pope JE, for the TAMI 7 study group: Continuously 12-lead ST-segment recovery analysis in the TAMI 7 study. Performance of a noninvasive method for real-time detection of failed myocardial reperfusion. Circulation 1993; 88:437446
  • 19
    Krucoff MW, Croll MA, Pope JE, Pieper KS, Kanani PM, Granger CB, Veldkamp RF, Wagner BL, Sawchak ST, Califf RM: Continuously updated 12-lead ST-segment recovery analysis for myocar-dial infarct artery patency assessment and its correlation with multiple simultaneous early angiographic observations. Am J Cardiol 1993; 71:145151
  • 20
    Jernberg T, Lindahl B, Wallentin L: ST-segment monitoring with continuous 12-lead ECG improves early risk stratification in patients with chest pain and ECG nondiagnostic of acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34:14131419
  • 21
    Klootwijk P, Meij S, Es GAV, Muller EJ, Umans VAWM, Lenderink T, Simoons ML: Comparison of usefulness of computer assisted continuous 48-h 3-lead ECG ischemia monitoring for detection and quantitation of ischemia in patients with unstable angina. Eur Heart J 1997; 18:931940
  • 22
    Romeo F, Rosano GM, Martuscelli E, Valente A, Reale A: Unstable angina: Role of silent ischemia and total ischemic time (silent plus painful ischemia), a 6-year follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19:11731179
  • 23
    Pepine CJ, Sharaf B, Andrews TC, Forman S, Geller N, Knatterud G, Mahmarian J, Ouyang P, Rogers WJ, Sopko G, Steingart R, Stone PH, Conti R: Relation between clinical, angiographic and ischemia findings at baseline and ischemia-related adverse outcomes at 1 year in the asymptomatic cardiac ischemia pilot study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29:14831489
  • 24
    Patel DJ, Knight CJ, Holdright DR, Mulcahy D, Clarke D, Wright C, Purcell H, Fox KM: Long-term prognosis in unstable angina. The importance of early risk stratification using continuous ST segment monitoring. Eur Heart J 1998; 19:240249
  • 25
    Sabia P, Abbott RD, Afrookteh A, Keller MW, Touchstone DA, Kaul S: Importance of two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function in patients presenting to the emergency room with cardiac-related symptoms. Circulation 1991; 84:16151624
  • 26
    Peels C, Visser CA, Funke Kupper AJ, Visser FC, Roos JP: Usefulness of two-dimensional echocardiography in the immediate detection of myocardial ischemia in the emergency room. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65:687691
  • 27
    Fleischmann KE, Lee TH, Come PC, Goldman L, Cook EF, Caguoia E, Johnson PA, Albano MP, Lee RT: Echocardiographic prediction of complications in patients with chest pain. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79:292298
  • 28
    Meinertz T, Hamm CW: Rapid testing for cardiac troponins in patients with acute chest pain in the emergency room. Eur Heart J 1998; 19:973974