SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Rajamani K, Fisher M: An overview of atherosclerosis. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 324329. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 2
    Roberts WC: The coronary arteries in ischemic heart disease: Facts and fancies. Triangle 1977; 16: 7790
  • 3
    Greenberg JH: Glucose and oxygen metabolism in ischemia. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 227248. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 4
    Vickrey BG, Rector TS, Wickstrom SL, Guzy PM, Sloss EM, Gorelick PB, Garber S, McCaffrey DF, Dake MD, Levin RA: Occurrence of secondary ischemic events among persons with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Stroke 2002; 33: 901906
  • 5
    Joint National Committee: The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med 1997; 24: 24132446
  • 6
    Elliott WJ, Bakris GL, McCampbell EL, Prisant LM: Diabetic hypertension. Ensuring optimal therapy in the primary-care setting. Medical Crossfire. Available at: www.medicalcrossfire.com/debate_archive/Spec_Ed/DiabeticHypertension.htm. Accessed October 16, 2002
  • 7
    Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, Furberg CD, Gorelick PB, Hademenos G, Hill M, Howard G, Howard VJ, Jacobs B, Levine SR, Mosca L, Sacco RL, Sherman DG, Wolf PA, del Zoppo GJ: AHA Scientific Statement. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke. Circulation 2001; 103: 163182
  • 8
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group: Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4,444 patients with coronary heart disease: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994; 344: 13831389
  • 9
    Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moyé LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG, Brown L, Warnica JW, Arnold JM, Wun CC, Davis BR, Braunwald E: The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 10011009
  • 10
    Blauw GJ, Lagaay AM, Smelt AHM, Westendorp RGJ: Stroke, statins, and cholesterol. A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Stroke 1997; 28: 946950
  • 11
    American Heart Association. Available at: www.americanheart.org. Accessed March 13, 2003.
  • 12
    Sloan MA: Toxicity/substance abuse. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 413416. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 13
    Kittner SJ, Bush TL: Pregnancy, hormonal contraception, and post-menopausal estrogen replacement therapy. In Primer on Cerebro-vascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 324329. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 14
    Women's Health Initiative Writing Group: Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: First results of the WHI in the HT study. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 321333
  • 15
    American Stroke Association. Available at www.strokeassocia-tion.jhtm?identifier=1033. Accessed December 6, 2002.
  • 16
    Simon JA, Hsia J, Cauley JA, Richards C, Harris F, Fong J, Barrett-Connor E, Hulley SB, for the HERS Research Group: Postmeno-pausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke: The Heart and Estrogen-progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Circulation 2001; 103: 638642
  • 17
    Viscou CM, Brass LM, Kernan WN, Sarrel PM, Suissa SM, Horwitz RI: A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 12431249
  • 18
    Kloner RA, Hale S, Alker K, Rezkalla S: The effects of acute and chronic cocaine use on the heart. Circulation 1992; 85: 407419
  • 19
    Mohr JP, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Babikian VL, Biller J, Brey RL, Coull B, Easton JD, Gomez CR, Helgason CM, Kase CS, Pullicino PM, Turpie AGG: American Heart Association Prevention Conference. IV. Prevention and rehabilitation of stroke. Etiology of stroke. Stroke 1997; 28: 15011506
  • 20
    Hart RC, Albers GW, Koudstaal PJ: Cardioembolic stroke. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 13921429. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 21
    Sacco RL, Benjamin EJ, Broderick JP, Dyken M, Easton JD, Feinberg WM, Goldstein LB, Gorelick PB, Howard G, Kittner SJ, Manolio TA, Whisnant JP, Wolf PA: Risk factors. American Heart Association Prevention Conference. IV. Prevention and rehabilitation of stroke. Stroke 1997; 28: 15071517
  • 22
    Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB: Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: The Framingham Study. Stroke 1991; 22: 983988
  • 23
    Helgason CM, Wolf PA: Executive summary. American Heart Association Prevention Conference IV: Prevention and rehabilitation of stroke. Circulation 1997; 96: 701707
  • 24
    Sacco RL: Current epidemiology of stroke. In Current Review of Cerebrovascular Disease (Eds. Fisher M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 314. Philadelphia, Pa.: Current Medicine, 1993
  • 25
    Mohr JP: Natural history and pathophysiology of brain infarction. Circulation 1991; 83 (suppl I): I-172I-175
  • 26
    Sacco RL, Ellenberg JA, Mohr JP, Tatemichi TK, Hier DB, Price TR, Wolf PA: Infarction of undetermined cause: The NINCDS Stroke Data Bank. Ann Neurol 1989; 25: 382390
  • 27
    Tresser SJ, Selman WR, Ratcheson RA: Pathophysiological alterations following aneurysm rupture. In Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: Perioperative Management. Vol. 6: Concepts in Neuro-surgery (Eds. Ratcheson RA, Wirth FP), p. 2345. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins, 1994
  • 28
    Chicoine MR, Dacey RG Jr: Clinical aspects of subarachnoid hemorrhage. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 425432. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 29
    Voelker JL, Kaufman HH: Clinical aspects of intracerebral hemorrhage. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 432436. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 30
    Broderick JP, Brott T, Tomsick T, Miller R, Huster G: Intracerebral hemorrhage more than twice as common as subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1993; 78: 188191
  • 31
    Sacco R. Ischemic stroke. In Handbook of Neuroepidemiology (Eds. Gorelick PB, Alter M ), p. 77119. New York, N.Y.: Marcel Dekker, 1994
  • 32
    Mohr JP: Cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 11971198
  • 33
    Heinzlef O, Cohen A, Amarenco P: An update on aortic causes of ischemic stroke. Curr Opin Neurol 1997; 10: 6472
  • 34
    Barbut D, Caplan LR: Cerebrovascular complications of cardiac surgery. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 783786. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 35
    Sawada T: Anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery syndromes. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 986996. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 36
    Neau J-PH, Bogousslavsky J: Middle cerebral artery syndromes. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 9971027. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 37
    Caplan LR, Bogousslavsky J: Posterior cerebral artery syndromes. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 10281056. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 38
    Donnan GA, Yasaka M: Lacunes and lacunar syndromes. In Cere-brovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 10901102. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 39
    Sacco SE, Whisnant JP, Broderick JP, Phillips SJ, O'Fallon WM: Epidemiological characteristics of lacunar infarcts in a population. Stroke 1991; 22: 12361241
  • 40
    Bernat JL: Systemic hypoperfusion brain injury. In Primer on Cere-brovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 289292. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 41
    Bladin CF, Chambers BR: Clinical features, pathogenesis, and computed tomographic characteristics of internal watershed infarction. Stroke 1993; 24: 19251932
  • 42
    Bladin CF, Chambers BR: Frequency and pathogenesis of hemo-dynamic stroke. Stroke 1994; 25: 21792182
  • 43
    Albers GW: Transient ischemic attack—proposal for a new definition. N Engl J Med 2002; 21; 347: 17131716
  • 44
    Carolei A, Marini C, Fieschi C: Transient ischemic attacks. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 941960. Mal-den, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 45
    Ad Hoc Committee on Cerebrovascular Diseases: Special report from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Classification of cerebrovascular diseases III. Stroke 1990; 21: 637676
  • 46
    Brown RD Jr, Petty GW, O'Fallon WM, Wiebers DO, Whisnant JP: Incidence of transient ischemic attack in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985-1989. Stroke 1998; 29: 21092113
  • 47
    Johnston SC, Gress DR, Browner WS, Sidney S: Short-term prognosis after emergency department diagnosis of TIA. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 284: 29012906
  • 48
    Iannuzzi A, Wilcosky T, Mercuri M, Rubba P, Bryan FA, Bond MG: Ultrasonographic correlates of carotid atherosclerosis in transient ischemic attack and stroke. Stroke 1995; 26: 614619
  • 49
    Hollander M, Breteler MMB: Markers of subclinical vascular disease and stroke. In The Prevention of Stroke (Eds. Gorelick PB, Alter M), p. 105114. New York, N.Y.: Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002
  • 50
    Strong JP: Atherosclerotic lesions. Natural history, risk factors, and topography. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1992; 116: 12681275
  • 51
    Rajamani K, Fisher M, Fisher M: Atherosclerosis, pathogenesis and pathophysiology. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 13081318. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 52
    Pepine CJ: The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on endothelial dysfunction: Potential role in myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol 1998; 9 (suppl 2): 23S27S
  • 53
    Becker RC: Antithrombotic therapy after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 10191022
  • 54
    Faraci FM, Heistad DD: Pathophysiologic mechanisms in cerebral blood vessels. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 333342. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 55
    Johansson BB: Hypertension. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 142144. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997: 142–144
  • 56
    Sawada K, Naiki M, Yago H, Matsushita K, Ohtsuki T, Kitagawa K, Matsumoto M, Hori Masatsugu: Hypertension associated with reduced plasma thrombomodulin levels and a hypercoagulable state in rats. Clin Exp Hypertens 2003; 25: 7384
  • 57
    Nishikawa T, Edelstein D, Brownlee M: The missing link: A single unifying mechanism for diabetic complications. Kidney Int 2000; 58 (suppl 77): S26S30
  • 58
    DeGraba TJ: Inflammation, infection and homocysteine in atherosclerosis. In The Prevention of Stroke (Eds. Gorelick PB, Alter M), p. 4964. New York, N.Y.: Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002
  • 59
    Marfella R, Esposito K, Giunta R, Coppola G, De Angelis L, Farzati B, Paolisso G, Giuglianao D: Circulating adhesion molecules in humans: Role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Circulation 2000; 101: 22472251
  • 60
    Ross R, Wight TN, Strandness E, Thiele B: Human atherosclerosis: I. Cell constituents and characteristics of advanced lesions of the superficial femoral artery. Am J Pathol 1984; 114: 7993
  • 61
    Cushing SD, Berliner JA, Valente AJ, Territo MC, Navab M, Parhami F, Gerrity R, Schwartz CJ, Fogelman AM: Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein induces monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 51345138
  • 62
    Quinn MT, Parthasarathy S, Fong LG, Steinberg D: Oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins: A potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 29952998
  • 63
    Quinn MT, Parthasarathy S, Steinberg D: Endothelial cell-derived chemotactic activity for mouse peritoneal macrophages and the effects of modified forms of low-density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82: 59495953
  • 64
    Kugiyama K, Bucay M, Morrisett JD, Roberts R, Henry PD: Oxidized LDL impairs endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation. Circulation 1989; 80 (suppl II): II-279
  • 65
    Sacco RL, Elkind M, Boden-Albala B, Lin I-F, Kargman DE, Hauser WA, Shea S, Paik MC: The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281: 5360
  • 66
    Gorelick PB, Sacco RL, Smith DB, Alberts M, Mustone-Alexander L, Rader D, Ross JL, Raps E, Ozer MN, Brass LM, Malone ME, Goldberg S, Booss J, Hanley DF, Toole JF, Greengold NL, Rhew DC: Prevention of a first stroke: A review of guidelines and a multidisciplinary consensus statement from the National Stroke Association. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281: 11121120
  • 67
    Sacco RL: Risk factors, outcomes, and stroke subtypes for ischemic stroke. Neurology 1997; 49 (suppl 4): S39S44
  • 68
    Wolf PA: Cigarettes, alcohol, and stroke. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 10871089
  • 69
    Gorelick PB: Stroke prevention therapy beyond antithrombotics: Unifying mechanisms in ischemic stroke pathogenesis and implications for therapy. An invited review. Stroke 2002; 33: 862875
  • 70
    Miller A, Mujumdar V, Shek E, Guillot J, Angelo M, Palmer L, Tyagi SC: Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia induces multiorgan damage. Heart Vessels 2000; 15: 135143
  • 71
    Feinberg WM, Coull BM: Coagulopathies and stroke. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 399401. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press, 1997
  • 72
    Anderson LR, Feinberg WM: Primary platelet disorders. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 401405. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press, 1997
  • 73
    Brey RL, Stallworth CL, McGlasson DL, Wozniak MA, Wityk RJ, Stern BJ, Sloan MA, Sherwin R, Price TR, Macko RF, Johnson CJ, Earley CJ, Buchholz DW, Hebel JR, Kittner SJ: Antiphospholipid antibodies and stroke in young women. Stroke 2002; 33: 23962400
  • 74
    Brey RL, Abbott RD, Curb JD, Sharp DS, Ross GW, Stallworth CL, Kittner SJ: β2-glycoprotein 1-dependent anticardiolipin antibodies and risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction: The Honolulu Heart Program. Stroke 2001; 32: 17011706
  • 75
    Siesjö BK, Kristian T, Katsura K-I: Overview of bioenergetic failure and metabolic cascades in brain ischemia. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 313. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 76
    Schmid-Schonbein GW: Capillary plugging by granulocytes and no reflow phenomenon in the microcirculation. Federation Proc 1987; 46: 23972401
  • 77
    del Zoppo GJ: Microvascular changes during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1994; 6: 4796
  • 78
    Feuerstein GZ, Liu T, Barone FC: Cytokines, inflammation, and brain injury: Role of tumor necrosis factor. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1994; 6: 341360
  • 79
    Hallenbeck J: Inflammatory reactions at the blood-endothelial interface in acute stroke. In Advances in Neurology (Eds. Siesjo B, Wieloch T), p. 281296. New York: Raven Press, 1996
  • 80
    Betz AL: Alterations in cerebral endothelial cell function in ischemia. In Advances in Neurology (Eds. Siesjo B, Wieloch T), p. 301313. New York: Raven Press, 1996
  • 81
    Siesjö BK, Katsura K, Mellergård P, Ekholm A, Lundgren J, Smith M-L: Acidosis-related brain damage. In Progress in Brain Research (Eds. Kogure K, Hossmann K-A, Siesjo BK), p. 2348. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 1993
  • 82
    Siesjö BK, Katsura KI, Krístián T, Li PA, Siesjö P: Molecular mechanisms of acidosis-mediated damage. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1996; 66: 814
  • 83
    Hossman K-A: Thresholds of ischemic injury. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 193204. Malden, Mass.: Black-well Science, 1998
  • 84
    Tymianski M: The central role of calcium ions and calcium-permeable channels in ischemic brain injury. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 371390. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 85
    Betz AL, Dietrich WD: Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cerebral ischemia. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 358370. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 86
    Choi DW: Glutamate neurotoxicity and disease of the nervous system. Neuron 1988; 1: 623634
  • 87
    Rothman SM, Olney JW: Excitotoxicity and the NMDA receptor—still lethal after eight years. Trends Neurosci 1987; 10: 299302
  • 88
    Welsh FA: Ischemic energy failure. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 217226. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 89
    Back T, Nedergaard M, Ginsberg MD: The ischemic penumbra. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Eds. Ginsberg M, Bogousslavsky J), p. 276286. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1998
  • 90
    Takeda Y, Jacewicz M, Takeda Y, Nowak TS Jr, Pulsinelli WA: DC-potential and energy metabolites in focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993; 13 (suppl 1): S450
  • 91
    Back T, Hoehn-Berlage M, Kohno K, Hossmann K-A: Diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in experimental stroke: Correlation with cerebral metabolites. Stroke 1994; 25: 494500
  • 92
    Gyngell ML, Busch E, Schmitz B, Kohno K, Back T, Hoehn-Berlage M, Hossmann K-A: Evolution of acute focal cerebral ischemia in rats observed by localised 1H-MRS, diffusion-weighted MRI, and electrophysiological monitoring. NMR Biomed 1995; 8: 206214
  • 93
    Gyngell ML, Back T, Hoehn-Berlage M, Kohno K, Hossmann K-A: Transient cell depolarization after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion: An observation by diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS. Magn Reson Med 1994; 31: 337341
  • 94
    Heiss W-D, Huber M, Fink GR, Herholz K, Pietrzyk U, Wagner R, Wienhard K: Progressive derangement of peri-infarct viable tissue in ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992; 12: 193203
  • 95
    Baron JC, Lebrun-Grandie P, Collard P, Crouzel C, Mestelan G, Bousser MG: Noninvasive measurement of blood flow, oxygen consumption, and glucose utilization in the same brain regions in man by positron emission tomography: Concise communication. J Nucl Med 1982; 23: 391399
  • 96
    Lenzi GL, Jones T, McKenzie CG, Moss S: Non-invasive regional study of chronic cerebrovascular disorders using the oxygen-15 inhalation technique. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1978; 41: 1117
  • 97
    Frackowiak RSJ: Pathophysiology of human cerebral ischemia: studies with positron tomography and 15oxygen. In Brain Imaging and Brain Function (Ed. Sokoloff L), p. 139161. New York: Raven Press, 1985
  • 98
    Baron JC, Rougement D, Lebrun-Grandié P, Bousser MG, Cabanis E, Bories J, Comar D, Castaigne P: Measurement of local blood flow and oxygen consumption in evolving irreversible cerebral infarction: An in vivo study in man. In Cerebral Vascular Disease, 4th ed. (Eds. Meyer JS, Lechner H, Reivich M, Ott EO), p. 205212. Princeton, N.J.: Excerpta Medica, 1983
  • 99
    Heiss W-D, Grond M, Thiel A, Stockhausen H-M, Rudolf J, Ghaemi M, Lottgen J, Stenzel C, Pawlik G: Tissue at risk of infarction rescued by early reperfusion: A positron emission tomography study in systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator throm-bolysis of acute stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1998; 18: 12981307
  • 100
    Heiss W-D, Kracht L, Grond M, Rudolf J, Bauer B, Wienhard K, Pawlik G: Early [11C] flumazenil/H2O positron emission tomography predicts irreversible ischemic cortical damage in stroke patients receiving acute thrombolytic therapy. Stroke 2000; 31: 366369
  • 101
    Knight RA, Chopp M: Imaging techniques for focal ischemic damage. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 136141. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 102
    Dirnagl U: Measurements of microcirculatory events in the brain in vivo. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 133136. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 103
    National Stroke Association: Stroke Statistics. Available at www.stroke.org/brain_stat.cfm. Accessed February 24, 2003.
  • 104
    Sacco RL: Ischemic stroke. In Handbook of Neuroepidemiology (Eds. Gorelick PB, Alter MA), p. 77119. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994
  • 105
    Petty GW, Brown RD Jr, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, O'Fallon WM, Wiebers DO: Survival and recurrence after first cerebral infarction: A population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1975 through 1989. Neurology 1998; 50: 208216
  • 106
    Albers GW, Amarenco P, Easton JD, Sacco RL, Teal P: Anti-thrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Chest 2001; 119: 300S320S
  • 107
    Diener HC, Cunha L, Forbes C, Sivenius J, Smets P, Lowenthal A: European Stroke Prevention Study 2: Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci 1996; 143: 113
  • 108
    SALT Collaborative Group: Swedish Aspirin Low-dose Trial (SALT) of 75 mg aspirin as secondary prophylaxis after cere-brovascular ischaemic events. Lancet 1991; 338: 13451349
  • 109
    Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study Group: Ticlopidine versus aspirin for stroke prevention: On-treatment results from the ticlopidine aspirin stroke study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1993; 3: 169176
  • 110
    Mehta SR, Yusuf S, CURE Study Investigators: The Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) trial programme: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics including a meta-analysis of the effects of thienopyridines in vascular disease. Eur Heart J 2000; 21: 20332041
  • 111
    CAPRIE Steering Committee: A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet 1996; 348: 13291339
  • 112
    Albers GW, Hart RG, Lutsep HL, Newell DW, Sacco RL: Supplement to the guidelines for the management of transient ischemic attacks. A statement from the Ad Hoc Committee on Guidelines for the Management of Transient Ischemic Attacks, Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1999; 30: 25022511
  • 113
    Bennett CL, Weinberg PD, Rozenberg-Ben-Dror K, Yarnold PR, Kwaan HC, Green D: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with ticlopidine: A review of 60 cases. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 541544
  • 114
    Taylor DW, Barnett HJM, Hayes RB, Ferguson GG, Sackett DL, Thorpe KE, Simard D, Silver FL, Hachinski V, Clagett GP, Barnes R, Spence JD, for the ASA and Carotid Endarterectomy (ACE) Trial Colloborators: Low-dose and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid for patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 21792184
  • 115
    Eisert WG: Dipyridamole. In Platelets (Ed. Michelson AD), p. 803815. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 2002
  • 116
    Takehara K, Igarashi A, Ishibashi Y: Dipyridamole specifically decreases platelet derived growth factor release from platelets. Thromb Res 1990; 12 (suppl): 7379
  • 117
    Takehara K, Grotendorst GR, Silver R, LeRoy EC: Dipyridamole decreases platelet-derived growth factor levels in human serum. Arteriosclerosis 1987; 7: 152155
  • 118
    The ESPS Group: The European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS): Principal end-points. Lancet 1987; 2: 13511354
  • 119
    Rajagopalan S, Harrison DG: Reversing endothelial dysfunction with ACE inhibitors. Circulation 1996; 94: 240243
  • 120
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators: Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: Results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet 2000; 355: 253259
  • 121
    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium-channel blocker vs. diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALL-HAT). J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 29812997
  • 122
    Straus SE, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA: New evidence for stroke prevention. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 13881398
  • 123
    Furberg CD, Adams HP Jr, Applegate WB, Byington RP, Espeland MA, Hartwell T, Hunninghake DB, Lefkowitz DS, Probstfield J, Riley WA, Young B, for the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Progression Study (ACAPS) Research Group: Effects of lovastatin on early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Circulation 1994; 90: 16791687
  • 124
    Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, Selzer RH, Liu C-r, Liu C-h, Alaupovic P, Kwong-Fu H, Azen SP: Reduction in carotid arterial wall thickness using lovastatin and dietary therapy: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124: 548556
  • 125
    Dichtl W, Dulak J, Frick M, Alber HF, Schwarzacher SP, Ares MPS, Nilsson J, Pachinger O, Weidinger F: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors regulate inflammatory transcription factors in human en-dothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23: 5863
  • 126
    Lau WC, Waskell LA, Watkins PB, Neer CJ, Horowitz K, Hopp AS, Tait AR, Carville DGM, Guyer KE, Bates ER: Atorvastatin reduces the ability of clopidogrel to inhibit platelet aggregation. A new drug-drug interaction. Circulation 2003; 107: 3237
  • 127
    Mayberg MR, Wilson SE, Yatsu F, Weiss DG, Messina L, Hershey LA, Colling C, Eskridge J, Deykin D, Winn HR, for the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program 309 Trialist Group: Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis. J Am Med Assoc 1991; 266: 32893294
  • 128
    Cohen SN: Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic disease. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1997; 6: 180184
  • 129
    Vitek JJ, Roubin GS, Al-Mubarek N, New G, Iyer SS: Carotid artery stenting: Technical considerations. Am J Neuroradiol 2002; 21: 17361743
  • 130
    Gomez CR, Misra VK, Liu MW, Wadlington VR, Terry JB, Tulyapronchote R, Campbell MS: Elective stenting of symptomatic basilar artery stenosis. Stroke 2000; 31: 9599
  • 131
    Mori T, Kazita K, Chokyu K, Mima T, Mori K: Short-term arterio-graphic and clinical outcome after cerebral angioplasty and stenting for intracranial vertebrobasilar and carotid atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Am J Neuroradiol 2000; 21: 249254
  • 132
    Schneck MJ: Anticoagulation for stroke prevention. In The Prevention of Stroke (Eds. Gorelick PB, Alter M), p. 208221. New York, N.Y.: Parthenon Publishing, 2002
  • 133
    Devuyst G, Bogousslavsky J: Status of patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, atrial septal defect and aortic arch atheroma as risk factors for stroke. Neuroepidemiology 1997; 16: 217223
  • 134
    Homma S, Sacco RL, Di Tullio MR, Sciacca RR, Mohr JP, PFO in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS) Investigators: Effect of medical treatment in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale: Patent foramen ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study. Circulation 2002; 105: 26252631
  • 135
    Zivin JA: Emerging treatments for stroke. In Primer on Cerebro-vascular Diseases (Eds. Welch KMA, Caplan LR, Reis DJ, Siesjo BK, Weir B), p. 791793. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1997
  • 136
    Albers GW, Bates VE, Clark WM, Bell R, Verro P, Hamilton SA: Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator for treatment of acute stroke: The Standard Treatment with Alteplase to Reverse Stroke (STARS) study. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 11451150
  • 137
    Grond M, Stenzel C, Schmulling S, Rudolf J, Neveling M, Lechleuthner A, Schneweis S, Heiss WD: Early intravenous throm-bolysis for acute ischemic stroke in a community-based approach. Stroke 1998; 29: 15441549
  • 138
    Hachinski AV, Hill MD, Buchan AM: The Canadian Activase for Stroke Effectiveness Study (CASES): Final results (abstr). Cere-brovasc Dis 2002; 13 (suppl 3): 99
  • 139
    Wang DZ, Rose JA, Honings DS, Garwacki DJ, Milbrandt JC: Treating acute stroke patients with intravenous tPA. The OSF stroke network experience. Stroke 2000; 31: 7781
  • 140
    Furlan A, Higashida R, Wechsler L, Gent M, Rowley H, Kase C, Pessin M, Ahuja A, Callahan F, Clark WM, Silver F, Rivera F, for the PROACT (Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism) Investigators: Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 282: 20032011
  • 141
    Mohr JP, Thompson JLP, Lazar RM, Levin B, Sacco RL, Furie KL, Kistler JP, Albers GW, Pettigrew LC, Adams HP Jr, Jackson CM, Pullicino P, for the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study Group: A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 14441451