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    Arias E, Anderson RN, Hsiang-Ching K, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD: Deaths: Final data for 2001, National Vital Statistics Report, 52, No. 3, Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, 2003
  • 2
    American Heart Association Statistical Fact Sheet-Populations: African-Americans and Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. American Heart Association, 2004
  • 3
    American Heart Association Statistical Fact Sheet-Populations: Whites and Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. American Heart Association, 2004
  • 4
    Cooper R, Cutler J, Desvigne-Nickens P, Fortmann SP, Friedman L, Havlik R, Hogelin G, Marler J, McGovern P, Morosco G, Mosca L, Pearson T, Stamler J, Stryer D, Thom T: Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: Findings of the National Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Circulation 2000; 102: 31373147
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    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. Healthy People 2010: Focus Area 12: Heart Disease and Stroke. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/cvh/hp2010/objectives.htm Accessed March 1, 2004
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    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Evaluation Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol. Accessed March 20, 2004
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    Ghosh J, Weiss MB, Kay RH, Frishman WH: Diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease: Therapeutic considerations. Heart Dis 2003; 5: 119128
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    Reaven G: Metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002; 106: 286288
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    Grundy SM: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 2002; 105: 26962698
  • 10
    Jones DW, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Heiss G, Hutchinson RG, Sharrett AR, Szklo M, Taylor HA Jr: Risk factors for coronary heart disease in African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 1987-1997. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 25652571
  • 11
    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs. usual care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 29983007
  • 12
    Nelson K, Norris K, Mangione CM: Disparities in the diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of high serum cholesterol by race and ethnicity: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 929935
  • 13
    American Heart Association Statistical Fact Sheet-Risk Factors: High Blood Pressure. American Heart Association, 2004
  • 14
    Burt VL, Whelton P, Roccella EJ, Brown C, Cutler JA, Higgins M, Horan MJ, Labarthe D: Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. Hypertension 1995; 25: 305313
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    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289: 25602572
  • 16
    O'Connor PJ: Overcome clinical inertia to control systolic blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 26772678
  • 17
    Jones MA, Schlenk EA, Kitutu JM, Sereika SM, Doswell WM, Dunbar-Jacob J: Ethnic differences in adherence to antihypertensive medications: A prospective study (abstr 1769). Circulation 2003; 108 (suppl IV): IV-381
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    Cooper RS, Simmons BE, Castaner A, Santhanam V, Ghali J, Mar M: Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with worse survival independent of ventricular function and number of coronary arteries severely narrowed. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65: 441445
  • 19
    Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M: Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 229234
  • 20
    Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D: Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 434444
  • 21
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in adults—United States, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 833837
  • 22
    American Heart Association Statistical Fact Sheet-Risk Factors: Diabetes Mellitus. American Heart Association, 2004
  • 23
    Saydah SH, Fradkin J, Cowie CC: Poor control of risk factors for vascular disease among adults with previously diagnosed diabetes. J Am Med Assoc 2004; 291: 335342
  • 24
    Bonds DE, Zaccaro DJ, Karter AJ, Selby JV, Saad M, Goff DC Jr: Ethnic and racial differences in diabetes care: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 10401046
  • 25
    El-Kebbi IM, Cook CB, Ziemer DC, Miller CD, Gallina DL, Phillips LS: Association of younger age with poor glycemic control and obesity in urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 6975
  • 26
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: Findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287: 356359
  • 27
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL: Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 17231727
  • 28
    Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS: Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289: 7679
  • 29
    Brancati FL, Kao WH, Folsom AR, Watson RL, Szklo M: Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 22532259
  • 30
    Sattar N, Gaw A, Scherbakova O, Ford I, O'Reilly DS, Haffner SM, Isles C, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Cobbe SM, Shepherd J: Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation 2003; 108: 414419
  • 31
    Ninomiya JK, L'Italien G, Criqui MH, Whyte JL, Gamst A, Chen RS: Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2004; 109: 4246
  • 32
    Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT: The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 27092716
  • 33
    Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR, Groop L: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 683689
  • 34
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Declining prevalence of no known major risk factors for heart disease and stroke among adults-United States, 1991-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 47
  • 35
    Greenlund KJ, Zheng ZJ, Keenan NL, Giles WH, Casper ML, Mensah GA, Croft JB: Trends in self-reported multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults in the United States, 1991-1999. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 181188
  • 36
    Sharma S, Malarcher AM, Giles WH, Myers G: Racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ethn Dis 2004; 14: 4348
  • 37
    Hall WD: Representation of blacks, women, and the very elderly (aged ≥ 80) in 28 major randomized clinical trials. Ethn Dis 1999; 9: 333340
  • 38
    Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, Margolis KL, Davis BR, Grimm RH, Black HR, Hamilton BP, Holland J, Nwachuku C, Papademetriou V, Probstfield J, Wright JT Jr, Alderman MH, Weiss RJ, Piller L, Bettencourt J, Walsh SM: ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American settings: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALL-HAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2002; 4: 393404
  • 39
    Jha AK, Varosy PD, Kanaya AM, Hunninghake DB, Hlatky MA, Waters DD, Furberg CD, Shlipak MG: Differences in medical care and disease outcomes among black and white women with heart disease. Circulation 2003; 108: 10891094