• 1
    American Heart Association: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2004 Update. Dallas, Tex.: American Heart Association, 2004
  • 2
    D'Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P: Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: Results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 180187
  • 3
    Greenland P, Knoll MD, Stamler J, Neaton JD, Dyer AR, Garside DB, Wilson PW: Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease events. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290: 891897
  • 4
    Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT: The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 27092716
  • 5
    Khot UN, Khot MB, Bajzer CT, Sapp SK, Ohman EM, Brener SJ, Ellis SG, Lincoff AM, Topol EJ: Prevalence of conventional risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290: 898904
  • 6
    Greenlund KJ, Zheng ZJ, Keenan NL, Giles WH, Casper ML, Mensah GA, Croft JB: Trends in self-reported multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults in the United States, 1991-1999. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 181188
  • 7
    Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 24862497
  • 8
    Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB: Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998; 97: 18371847
  • 9
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Wilson PW, Larson MG, Leip E, Beiser A, D'Agostino RB, Cleeman JI, Levy D: Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease by cholesterol levels at selected ages. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 19661972
  • 10
    Cullen P: Evidence that triglycerides are an independent coronary heart disease risk factor. Am J Cardiol 2000; 86: 943949
  • 11
    Stamler J, Stamler R, Neaton JD: Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and cardiovascular risks. US population data. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153: 598615
  • 12
    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R: Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360: 19031913
  • 13
    Castelli WP, Garrison RJ, Dawber TR, McNamara PM, Feinleib M, Kannel WB: The filter cigarette and coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Lancet 1981; 2: 109113
  • 14
    Wilson PW: Diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: S89100
  • 15
    Kannel WB: Coronary heart disease risk factors in the elderly. Am J Geriatr Cardiol 2002; 11: 101107
  • 16
    Kannel WB: Bishop lecture. Contribution of the Framingham Study to preventive cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 15: 206211
  • 17
    Lippi G, Guidi G: Lipoprotein(a): An emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2003; 40: 142
  • 18
    Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Jenner JL, McNamara JR, Ordovas JM, Davis CE, Abolafia JM, Lippel K, Levy RI: Lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of coronary heart disease in men. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial. J Am Med Assoc 1994; 271: 9991003
  • 19
    Perna AF, Ingrosso D, Lombardi C, Acanfora F, Satta E, Cesare CM, Violetti E, Romano MM, De Santo NG: Possible mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity. Kidney Int Suppl 2003: S137140
  • 20
    Clarke R, Stansbie D: Assessment of homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor in clinical practice. Ann Clin Biochem 2001; 38: 624632
  • 21
    Christen WG, Ajani UA, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH: Blood levels of homocysteine and increased risks of cardiovascular disease: Causal or casual? Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 422434
  • 22
    Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Appleby P, Gallimore JR, Pepys MB: Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: Prospective study and updated meta-analyses. Br Med J 2000; 321: 199204
  • 23
    Thompson SG, Kienast J, Pyke SD, Haverkate F, van de Loo JC: Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 635641
  • 24
    Aronow WS: C-reactive protein. Should it be considered a coronary risk factor? Geriatrics 2003; 58: 1922, 25
  • 25
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N: C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 836843
  • 26
    Ridker PM, Rifai N, Rose L, Buring JE, Cook NR: Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 15571565
  • 27
    Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, Anderson JL, Cannon RO III, Criqui M, Fadl YY, Fortmann SP, Hong Y, Myers GL, Rifai N, Smith SC Jr., Taubert K, Tracy RP, Vinicor F: Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: Application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2003; 107: 499511
  • 28
    Salen G, Shefer S, Nguyen L, Ness GC, Tint GS, Shore V: Sitosterolemia. J Lipid Res 1992; 33: 945955
  • 29
    Sudhop T, Gottwald BM, von Bergmann K: Serum plant sterols as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease. Metabolism 2002; 51: 15191521
  • 30
    Assmann G, Cullen P, Erbey JR, Ramey DR, Kannenberg F, Schulte H: Elevation in plasma sitosterol is associated with an increased risk for coronary events in the PROCAM study. Circulation 2003; 108: IV-730