• Bagasse;
  • Levulinic acid;
  • Liquefaction;
  • Paddy straw;
  • Sustainability;
  • Synthesis


A method of levulinic acid production from bagasse and paddy straw is presented. Biomass waste was mixed with hydrochloride acid and water, and then liquefied at about 200°C in a pressurized reactor. Both the mass of the biomass and the amount of hydrochloride acid were kept as constants, and the effects of temperature, reaction time, and acid concentration on the levulinic acid yield were studied. It was found that the yield of levulinic acid was maximum when the reaction temperature was carried out for 45 min at 220°C using 4.45% concentration of hydrochloride acid, and the maximum yields of levulinic acid were 22.8 and 23.7% for bagasse and paddy straw, respectively. The products were analyzed using NMR, HPLC, and GC/MS.