The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process has shown great success in the treatment of industrial wastewater from intermittent discharge factories and for the treatment of domestic wastewater from medium or small towns. As automation technology has developed, many studies have been conducted to determine the optimal conditions for the SBR process. This review outlines the progress and application of control strategies that have been developed for the SBR process and provides a summary and comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various control strategies, especially fixed-time control strategies and various real-time control strategies. Moreover, an analysis and discussion of novel optimal control methods for biologic nutrient removal are provided. Although previous studies in this field have greatly enriched our understanding of SBR systems, it is clear that many unsolved problems remain. Therefore, a summary of unanswered questions regarding control strategies for the SBR process is provided and future research directions are suggested.