• Biosorption;
  • Isotherms;
  • Kinetics;
  • Methylene blue;
  • Spent cottonseed husk substrate


This study concentrates on the possible application of the spent cottonseed husk substrate (SCHS), an agricultural waste used after the cultivation of white rot fungus Flammulina velutipes, to adsorb methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were carried out with variable initial solution pH, adsorbent amount, reaction time, temperature, and initial MB concentration. MB uptake was favorable at pH ranging from 4.0 to 12.0, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity of 143.5 mg g−1 can be reached promptly within about 240 min. The combination analysis of FTIR and BET techniques revealed that the massive functional groups on the biosorbent surface, such as hydroxyl and carboxyl, were responsible for the biosorption of MB. It was found that adsorption data matched the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters of free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°), obtained from biosorption MB ranging from 293 to 313 K, showed that the sorption experiment was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The study highlighted a new pathway to develop a new potential utilization of SCHS as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of MB pollutants from wastewater.