• Iron filters;
  • Long-term reactivity;
  • Oxide scale;
  • Water treatment, Zerovalent iron


Filtration systems containing metallic iron as reactive medium (Fe0 beds) have been intensively used for water treatment during the last two decades. The sustainability of Fe0 beds is severely confined by two major factors: (i) reactivity loss as result of the formation of an oxide scale on Fe0 and (ii) permeability loss due to pore filling by generated iron corrosion products. Both factors are inherent to iron corrosion at pH > 4.5 and are common during the lifespan of a Fe0 bed. It is of great practical significance to improve the performance of Fe0 beds by properly addressing these key factors. Recent studies have shown that both reactivity loss and permeability loss could be addressed by mixing Fe0 and inert materials. For a non-porous additive like quartz, the threshold value for the Fe0 volumetric proportion is 51%. Using the Fe0/quartz system as reference, this study theoretically discusses the possibility of (i) replacing Fe0 by bimetallic systems (e.g., Fe0/Cu0), or (ii) partially replacing quartz by a reactive metal oxide (MnO2 or TiO2) to improve the efficiency of Fe0 beds. Results confirmed the suitability of both tools for sustaining Fe0 bed performance. It is shown that using a Fe0:MnO2 system with the volumetric proportion 51:49 will yield a filter with 40% residual porosity at Fe0 depletion (MnO2 porosity 62%). This study improves Fe0 bed design and can be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research for efficient Fe0 filters.