SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Agriculture;
  • Lepidium sativum;
  • Toxicity;
  • Vibrio fischeri;
  • Wastewater treatment plant

Abstract

This article reports the levels of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludges taken from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Konya (Turkey) as well as their toxicity. The concentrations of heavy metals, including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn in sludge samples from plant #2 did not exceed the limits described in both Turkish and European Union (EU) regulations. The similar result was observed in samples obtained from plant #1, except for sludge taken in May 2010. The ΣPAHs concentration ranging from 960 to 7680 µg/kg dry matter shows that sewage sludges from plant #1 could be used for agricultural purpose. However, sewage sludges from plant #2 (ΣPAHs: 1077–17 509 µg/kg dry matter) was not suitable for using in agriculture. The concentrations of ΣPCBs in all investigated sludges from plant #1 (7.46–709.36 µg/kg dry matter) and plant #2 (14.12–788.47 µg/kg dry matter) were lower than the limits reported in Turkish and EU regulations. The probable sources of PAHs and PCBs in sludges were also determined. The ecotoxicological tests examined on Vibrio fischeri and Lepidium sativum organisms showed that sludges from plant #1 had no significant toxic effect, while sludges from plant #2 had acute toxic property. Finally, all the results showed that sewage sludges from plant #1 had potential for being used in agriculture.