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River Water Pollution in Developed and Developing Countries: Judge and Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Selected Dissolved Metal Concentration

Authors

  • M. Tajuddin Sikder,

    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Yusuke Kihara,

    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Masaomi Yasuda,

    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Yustiawati,

    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Yoshihiro Mihara,

    1. Biomaterials Chemistry, Division of Environmental Materials Science, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Shunitz Tanaka,

    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    2. Group of Environmental Adaptation Science, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Dalkhjav Odgerel,

    1. Professional Inspection Agency of City, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
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  • Badamtsetseg Mijiddorj,

    1. Professional Inspection Agency of City, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
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  • Suhaemi M. Syawal,

    1. RC for Limnology, Indonesian Institute for Sciences, Indonesia
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  • Toshiyuki Hosokawa,

    1. Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education, Research Division for Higher Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Takeshi Saito,

    1. Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Masaaki Kurasaki

    Corresponding author
    1. Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    2. Group of Environmental Adaptation Science, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    • Group of Environmental Adaptation Science, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
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Abstract

To compare water quality in rivers of developed and developing countries, a study based on physicochemical parameters and dissolved metals levels was conducted. Water samples were collected from selected sites in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Hokkaido and Osaka, Japan; Erdenet, Mongolia and West Java, Indonesia. Analysis of least significant differences revealed that most water quality parameters were within comparable low levels in both developed and developing countries. The dissolved metals concentrations were found to be similar and below those of water standards except for manganese and cadmium at every sampling point, and lead in Erdenet, Mongolia. Some metals showed high enrichment factors in the rivers of Osaka, Japan and Erdenet, Mongolia, indicating accumulation possibility of metals in the river-bed sediments. High concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, Escherichia coli and dissolved metals suggested greater water pollution in some rivers of developing countries than in the rivers of Japan. Principal component analysis showed strong correlations between “dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand” and “conductivity and total dissolved solids” at each sampling point, and E. coli, nitrate (NOmath image), nitrite (NOmath image), and pH levels were found to be higher in the rivers of Dhaka and Erdenet. In addition, there were high levels of Al and Zn in West Java, Pb in Erdenet, and Mn, Fe, and Cr in the rivers of Dhaka and Japan. Based on pressures and impacts, it is evident that dissolved metal, organic, and fecal pollution in the rivers of developing countries are in somewhat dreadful condition in comparison with the rivers of developed country.

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