Enhanced coagulation treatment of bacteria-containing raw water was studied by using three series of composite coagulants, that were prepared by combining polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) with different intrinsic viscosity values (0.55–2.47 dL/g) and mass percentages (5–20%) with polyaluminum chloride (PAC), aluminum sulfate (AS), and the composite of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride (A-F), respectively. The coagulants were tested by jar tests for the efficiencies to remove bacteria in raw water and to kill bacteria in settled sludge. It was found that when the residual turbidity of supernatant after sedimentation reached the control standard of 2 NTU in drinking water plant, the bacteria-removing rates of PAC, AS, and A-F were 92.22, 92.60, and 94.99%, respectively, and the bactericidal rates were 2.52, 1.22, and 2.94%, respectively. Contrastively, the bacteria-removing rates of PAC/PDADMAC, AS/PDADMAC, and A-F/PDADMAC could reach 95.45, 96.90, and 98.89%, respectively, and the bactericidal rates could reach 86.60, 91.81, and 96.98%, respectively. It could be deduced from the results that the bactericidal efficiencies of composite coagulants stemmed from the bactericidal action of PDADMAC, and the inorganic coagulants had little bactericidal function.