Assessment of Urban Source Metal Levels in Influent, Effluent, and Sludge of Two Municipal Biological Nutrient Removal Wastewater Treatment Plants of Bursa, an Industrial City in Turkey

Authors

  • Nezih Kamil Salihoglu

    Corresponding author
    1. Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey
    • Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey
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Abstract

Removal of Al, As, Cd, total Cr (Tot. Cr), Cu, Total Fe (Tot. Fe), Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn from urban effluent by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated under five-stage Bardenpho® process were investigated and water soluble metals in the dewatered sludge were quantified. Samples were collected from two WWTPs on a weekly basis over an approximately 2.5-year time span. Tot. Fe and Al were the most abundant, As, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd were the least abundant metals in the influents of both WWTPs. Removal efficiencies above 75% were achieved for Tot. Cr, Tot. Fe, Al, and Cu, whereas, no significant removal was observed for As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Sn. Removal of Tot. Cr, Cu, Tot. Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, and Ni were influenced by influent suspended solids concentrations, and of Tot. Cr, Zn, and Cd were influenced by their initial content in the influent. Zn removal efficiency of biological nutrient removal (BNR) system in this study was higher and Cd removal efficiency was lower than that of conventional activated sludge reported in the literature. No remarkable difference for metals such as Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb was observed between the removal efficiencies of conventional system and BNR system.

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