• Anthropogenic source;
  • Back trajectory;
  • Diurnal change;
  • Statistics;
  • Trace gas


In this study, temporal variations of surface ozone (O3) were investigated at tropical urban site of Hyderabad during the year 2009. O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2), black carbon (BC), and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored at the established air monitoring station. Results revealed the production of surface O3 from NO2 through photochemical oxidation. Averaged datasets illustrated the variations in ground-level concentrations of these air pollutants along different time scales. Maximum mean concentrations of O3 (56.75 ppbv) and NOx (8.9 ppbv) were observed in summer. Diurnal-seasonal changes in surface O3 and NOx concentrations were explicated with complex atmospheric chemistry, boundary layer dynamics, and local meteorology. In addition, nocturnal chemistry of NOx played a decisive role in the formation of O3 during day time. Mean BC mass concentration in winter (10.92 µg m−3) was high during morning hours. Heterogeneous chemistry of BC on O3 destruction and NOx formation was elucidated. Apart from these local observations, long-range transport of trace gases and BC aerosols were evidenced from air mass back trajectories. Further, statistical modeling was performed to predict O3 using multi-linear regression method, which resulted in 91% of the overall variance.