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Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Production from Wastewater through Box–Behnken Design and Its Effect on Nutrient Element Uptake in Plants

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Abstract

This study examined equation image, equation image recovery and the concentration of residual ions from anaerobic effluent of the potato processing industry through magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation using a Box–Behnken design. The regression model was statistically significant in terms of equation image and equation image removal efficiency and residual ion concentrations. Optimum equation image and equation image removal was obtained at pH 9.50 and at Mg2+/equation image/equation image molar ratio of 1.8:1:1.8. Under these conditions, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, and Cl concentrations required for plant growth significantly decreased with MAP precipitation, which was supported by EDX analysis of dry MAP precipitate. The fertilizer effect of MAP on the growth of corn and tomato plants was compared with chemical fertilizers through pot trials. Nutrient element uptake levels of plants were examined in different fertilizer sources. While Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn nutrient element uptake levels were sufficient in MAP pots, Ca uptake exceeded sufficient level. Average levels of N, P, K, Mg, Cu, and Mn of corn plant were higher in MAP than other pots. The average N, P, and Mg levels of tomato plant in MAP pots were higher than other pots. N/K ratio, which is important in tomato plants, was better optimized in MAP pots. Only Ni, Cr, and Pb heavy metals were found in plants.

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