In this study, the effects of disturbance of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase and mitotic root-tip cells of Triticum turgidum and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated. Reduced ROS levels were obtained by treatment with diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-cysteine, whereas menadione was applied to achieve ROS overproduction. Both increased and low ROS levels induced: (a) Macrotubule formation in cells with low ROS levels and tubulin paracrystals under oxidative stress. The protein MAP65-1 was detected in treated cells, exhibiting a conformation comparable to that of the atypical tubulin polymers. (b) Disappearance of microtubules (MTs). (c) Inhibition of preprophase band formation. (d) Delay of the nuclear envelope breakdown at prometaphase. (e) Prevention of perinuclear tubulin polymer assembly in prophase cells. (f) Loss of bipolarity of prophase, metaphase and anaphase spindles. Interestingly, examination of the A. thaliana rhd2/At respiratory burst oxidase homolog C (rbohc) NADPH oxidase mutant, lacking RHD2/AtRBOHC, gave comparable results. Similarly to DPI, the decreased ROS levels in rhd2 root-tip cells, interfered with MT organization and induced macrotubule assembly. These data indicate, for first time in plants, that ROS are definitely implicated in: (a) mechanisms controlling the assembly/disassembly of interphase, preprophase and mitotic MT systems and (b) mitotic spindle function. The probable mechanisms, by which ROS affect these processes, are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.