Non-natural Peptide Triazole Antagonists of HIV-1 Envelope gp120

Authors

  • Dr. Kantharaju Kamanna,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Rachna Aneja,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Caitlin Duffy,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Pamela Kubinski,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Diogo Rodrigo Moreira,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Lauren D. Bailey,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Karyn McFadden,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Arne Schön,

    1. Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (USA)
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  • Andrew Holmes,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Ferit Tuzer,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Dr. Mark Contarino,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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  • Prof. Ernesto Freire,

    1. Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (USA)
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  • Prof. Irwin M. Chaiken

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
    • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, New College Building, Room 11302, Philadelphia, PA, 19102 (USA)
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Abstract

We investigated the derivation of non-natural peptide triazole dual receptor site antagonists of HIV-1 Env gp120 to establish a pathway for developing peptidomimetic antiviral agents. Previously we found that the peptide triazole HNG-156 [R-I-N-N-I-X-W-S-E-A-M-M-CONH2, in which X=ferrocenyltriazole-Pro (FtP)] has nanomolar binding affinity to gp120, inhibits gp120 binding to CD4 and the co-receptor surrogate mAb 17b, and has potent antiviral activity in cell infection assays. Furthermore, truncated variants of HNG-156, typified by UM-24 (Cit-N-N-I-X-W-S-CONH2) and containing the critical central stereospecific LX-LW cluster, retain the functional characteristics of the parent peptide triazole. In the current work, we examined the possibility of replacing natural with unnatural residue components in UM-24 to the greatest extent possible. The analogue with the critical “hot spot” residue Trp 6 replaced with L-3-benzothienylalanine (Bta) (KR-41), as well as a completely non-natural analogue containing D-amino acid substitutions outside the central cluster (KR-42, DCit-DN-DN-DI-X-Bta-DS-CONH2), retained the dual receptor site antagonism/antiviral activity signature. The results define differential functional roles of subdomains within the peptide triazole and provide a structural basis for the design of metabolically stable peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV-1 Env gp120.

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