Obesity is one of the main human epidemics today. The increase in fat accumulation, which is associated with obesity, may significantly change the expression of several bioactive molecules known as adipokines. These adipokines interact not only with adipose tissue, but also with metabolically relevant organs such as liver and muscle. Understanding the molecular basics of potential novel targets might help to improve the therapeutic treatment of people who suffer from obesity. Herein we summarize the state of the art of two novel adipokines and their impaired or protective action in obesity: chemerin and vaspin. Their expression patterns, signal transduction activity, and resulting functions within the human body are introduced. We also discuss various possibilities to target these adipokines, which may represent promising new targets for the treatment of obesity by small and synthetic compounds.