• antiviral agents;
  • drug delivery;
  • nucleosides;
  • phosphoramidates;
  • protecting groups


Among the many prodrug approaches aimed at delivering nucleoside monophosphates into cells, the phosphoramidate ProTide approach is one that has shown success, which has made it possible for some of the phosphoramidates to enter into clinical trials. Herein, we report the synthesis and antiviral activity of a series of phosphoramidate ProTides designed to bypass the thymidine kinase (TK) dependence of the parent nucleoside analogues. Phosphoramidate derivatives of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2′-deoxyuridine (BVDU) that contain L-alanine or pivaloyloxymethyl iminodiacetate (IDA-POM) exhibit anti-HSV-1 and anti-VZV activity in cell cultures, but they largely lost antiviral potency against TK-deficient virus strains. Among deazapurine nucleosides and their phosphoramidate derivatives, the 7-deazaadenine containing nucleosides and their phosphoramidate triester derivatives showed weak antiviral activity against VZV. Apparently, intracellular nucleotide delivery with these phosphoramidates is partly successful. However, none of the compound prodrugs showed superior activity to their parent drugs.