Herein we report a study aimed at discovering a new class of compounds that are able to inhibit Leishmania donovani cell growth. Evaluation of an in-house library of compounds in a whole-cell screening assay highlighted 4-((1-(4-ethylphenyl)-2-methyl-5-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl)thiomorpholine (compound 1) as the most active. Enzymatic assays on Leishmania infantum trypanothione reductase (LiTR, belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex) shed light on both the interaction with, and the nature of inhibition by, compound 1. A molecular modeling approach based on docking studies and on the estimation of the binding free energy aided our rationalization of the biological data. Moreover, X-ray crystal structure determination of LiTR in complex with compound 1 confirmed all our results: compound 1 binds to the T(SH)2 binding site, lined by hydrophobic residues such as Trp21 and Met113, as well as residues Glu18 and Tyr110. Analysis of the structure of LiTR in complex with trypanothione shows that Glu18 and Tyr110 are also involved in substrate binding, according to a competitive inhibition mechanism.