• Open Access

How to assess cytotoxicity of (iron oxide-based) nanoparticles. A technical note using cationic magnetoliposomes

Authors

  • Stefaan J.H. Soenen,

    1. Laboratory of BioNanoColloids, IRC, KULeuven Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk, Belgium
    2. Present address: Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Gent, Gent, Belgium
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  • Marcel De Cuyper

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of BioNanoColloids, IRC, KULeuven Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk, Belgium
    • Laboratory of BioNanoColloids, IRC, KULeuven Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk, Belgium.
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Abstract

The range of different types of nanoparticles and their biomedical applications is rapidly growing, creating a need to thoroughly examine the effects these particles have on biological entities. One of the most commonly used nanoparticle types is iron oxide nanoparticles, which can be used as MRI contrast agents. The main research topic is the in vitro labeling of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles to render the cells detectable for MRI upon in vivo transplantation. For the correct evaluation of cell function and behavior in vivo, any effects of the nanoparticles on the cells must be completely ruled out. The present work provides a technical note where a detailed overview is given of several assays that could be useful to determine nanoparticle toxicity. The assays described focus on (i) nanoparticle internalization, (ii) immediate cell toxicity, (iii) cell proliferation, (iv) cell morphology, (v) cell functionality and (vi) cell physiology. Potential pitfalls, appropriate controls and advantages/disadvantages of the different assays are given. The main focus of this work is to provide a detailed guide to help other researchers in the field interested in setting up nanoparticle-toxicity studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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