Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

Cover image for Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

September/October 2007

Volume 2, Issue 5

Pages 215–269

  1. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Full Papers
    3. Short Communications
    4. Current Awareness
    1. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vascular–extravascular exchanges during liver carcinogenesis: application to MRI contrast agents (pages 215–228)

      Muriel Mescam, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Claire Fauvel, Jacques D. de Certaines and Johanne Bézy-Wendling

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In order to better understand or predict contrast agents bio-d istribution in the liver, as well as their effect on MR images features, we developed a five-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. This model includes physical characteristics of the injected molecule, dual specific liver supply, micro-vessel wall properties and transpor t parameters that are compatible with hepatocarcinoma development. The evolution of the concentration in each compartment was assessed in the case of three molecules, in steady-state and for different stages of the carcinogenesis.

    2. Dendritic PARACEST contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (pages 229–239)

      J.A. Pikkemaat, R.T. Wegh, R. Lamerichs, R.A. van de Molengraaf, S. Langereis, D. Burdinski, A.Y.F. Raymond, H.M. Janssen, B.F.M. de Waal, N.P. Willard, E.W. Meijer and H. Grüll

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.149

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel Yb(III)DOTAM-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been synthesized and studied on a 7 T NMR spectrometer and on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner for their applicability as dendritic PARACEST MRI contrast agents for pH mapping. It is shown that dendrimers are suitable scaffolds for the amplification of the molar CEST-MRI contrast enhancement and, in addition, enable fine tuning of the responsive pH region.

    3. Reporter gene imaging using radiographic contrast from nonradioactive iodide sequestered by the sodium–iodide symporter (pages 240–247)

      Stephen L. Brown, Svend O. Freytag, Kenneth N. Barton, Michael J. Flynn, Donald J. Peck, Aleksandar F. Dragovic, Ryan Jin, Yener N. Yeni, David P. Fyhrie, Clifford M. Les, Guopei Zhu, Andrew Kolozsvary, Wayne C. Pitchford, S. David Nathanson, Joseph D. Fenstermacher and Jae Ho Kim

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.150

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      X-ray attenuation contrast was demonstrated in human tumors grown in mice given systemic iodide and transduced to express the sodium–iodide symporter, NIS, a molecular pump known to sequester iodide. Radiographic contrast was observed using radiographs, conventional X-rays and micro-CT. Clinical CT did not demonstrate convincing contrast in a canine given iodide systemically and whose prostate was transduced with NIS. NIS-sequestered non-radioactive iodide has utility as a reporter gene in small animals, but its clinical applications are questionable.

    4. Na+/Ca2+-exchanger-mediated Mn2+-enhanced 1H2O MRI in hypoxic, perfused rat myocardium (pages 248–257)

      Daniel C. Medina, Dawn M. Kirkland, Masoud F. Tavazoie, Charles S. Springer Jr and Steven E. Anderson

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Deducing microscopic processes constitutes a major MRI limitation. This investigation circumvents this hindrance, contributing an MRI-based myocardial Ca2+-transporter assay that probes the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) with Mn2+. Normoxic hyperkalemia (A) suppresses L-type Ca2+-channel (LTC). Under hypoxia (B), intracellular pH (pHi) falls, Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) mediates a pHi-dependent [Nai+] rise, hypoxia-induced ATP deficit eventually limits Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA); and finally, NKA impairment vis-à-vis NHE “stimulation” promotes NCX-mediated [Cai2+] and [Mni2+] rise. This important mechanism is ubiquitous to myocardial insults that impart [Nai+] increases.

  2. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Full Papers
    3. Short Communications
    4. Current Awareness
    1. The presence of halide salts influences the non-covalent interaction of MRI contrast agents and human serum albumin (pages 258–261)

      Virginie Henrotte, Robert N. Muller, Annick Bartholet and Luce Vander Elst

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.153

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Salts show a negative effect on the non-covalent binding of gadolinium contrast agents to HSA.

  3. Current Awareness

    1. Top of page
    2. Full Papers
    3. Short Communications
    4. Current Awareness

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