Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 4

July/August 2011

Volume 6, Issue 4

Pages i–iii, 169–330

  1. Cover and Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover and Masthead
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    5. Short Communications
    1. Cover and Masthead (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.473

  2. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover and Masthead
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    5. Short Communications
    1. Optical probes and the applications in multimodality imaging (pages 169–177)

      Yang Liu, Gang Yu, Mei Tian and Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.428

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      Optical imaging methods are widely used in biomedical research. A new generation of imaging agents called multimodal probes which harnesses the strengths of the different modalities have emerged. In this mini-review, we describe the available multimodal imaging probes for in vivo imaging that combine optical imaging with other modalities.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover and Masthead
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    5. Short Communications
    1. Rapid hepatic clearance of 99mTc-TMEOP: a new candidate for myocardial perfusion imaging (pages 178–188)

      Lode R. Goethals, Isabel Santos, Vicky Caveliers, Antonio Paulo, Frank De Geeter, Patrício G. Lurdes, Célia Fernandes and Tony Lahoutte

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.413

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      99mTc-TMEOP is a moderately lipophilic cation, is stable, does not undergo any transformation in vitro and also shows a high in vivo stability. In vivo imaging shows liver kinetics that are faster than those of 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin, causing less interference in the interpretation of the inferior myocardial wall. Cardiac uptake and functional analysis of pinhole gated SPECT data of 99mTc-TMEOP is comparable with 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin.

    2. Surface functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI applications – effect of anchoring group and ligand exchange protocol (pages 189–199)

      Eric D. Smolensky, Hee-Yun E. Park, Thelma S. Berquó and Valérie C. Pierre

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.417

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      Oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were refunctionalized with a discrete library of PEG ligands to study both the effect of the functionalization procedure and of the composition of the anchoring group on the relaxivity of the particles. The biphasic ligand exchange procedure yielded hydrophilic nanoparticles with higher relaxivity compared to those particles produced by the two-step ligand exchange. Additionally, catecholate anchoring moieties maintain the magnetization of the nanoparticles, whereas carboxylate and phosphonate moieties do not.

    3. An imageable retinoid acid derivative to detect human cancer xenografts and study therapeutic dosing to reduce its toxicity (pages 200–208)

      Wei Wang, Xiuchun Qiu, Fujun Zhang, Jin Sun, Arlin G. Cameron, Juliet A. Wendt, Michel E. Mawad and Shi Ke

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.419

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      Fluorophore-labeled contrast imaging agents are moving toward clinical use for a number of applications. The near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW is frequently used in its N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form for labeling these agents. Following conjugation or breakdown of a labeled ligand, excess NHS ester is converted to the carboxylate form. To prepare for clinical use as a near-infrared fluorophore, a toxicity study was conducted on IRDye 800 CW.

    4. Ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to image brain cancer cells in vivo with MRI (pages 209–218)

      Luc Faucher, Andrée-Anne Guay-Bégin, Jean Lagueux, Marie-France Côté, Éric Petitclerc and Marc-André Fortin

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.420

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      Ultra-small paramagnetic gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (US-Gd2O3; 2-3nm nanocrystal diameter) can be used to label glioblastoma multiforme brain cancer cells, which appear positively contrasted in MR, T1-weighted images. High amounts of gadolinium are ingested in the cells, as confirmed by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy. The cells are then clearly visualized in vivo using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, a clinical MRI system and a common 3D T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Images are free of susceptibility artifacts.

    5. A self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent that detects esterase enzyme activity (pages 219–228)

      Yuguo Li, Vipul R. Sheth, Guanshu Liu and Mark D. Pagel

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.421

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      A PARACEST MRI contrast agent has been developed that is responsive to esterase enzyme activity. De-esterification and lactonization cause the appearance of an “enzymeresponsive” CEST effect from an amine group. A second “control” CEST effect can be detected before and after enzyme catalysis, so that this contrast agent is self-calibrating.

    6. Synthesis and characterization of new low-molecular-weight lysine-conjugated Gd-DTPA contrast agents (pages 229–235)

      Sophie Laurent, Carmen Burtea, Luce Vander Elst and Robert N. Muller

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.422

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      Two new low molecular weight CAs were synthesized by conjugating four or six 1-p-isothiocyanato benzyl-DTPA moieties to tri- or penta-Lys peptides [(Gd-DTPA)4Lys3 and (Gd-DTPA)6Lys5]. The half-life in blood of these new polylysine derivatives, as determined in rats, is twofold longer than that of Gd-DTPA. This makes these compounds suitable as blood pool markers for MRA. Their moderate retention in blood and their higher stability and relaxivity in comparison with Gd-DTPA highlight these polylysine derivatives as potential CAs for MRA.

    7. In vitro biomedical applications of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles, including those not related to magnetic properties (pages 236–250)

      Carmen Burtea, Sophie Laurent, Isabelle Mahieu, Lionel Larbanoix, Alain Roch, Marc Port, Olivier Rousseaux, Sébastien Ballet, Oltea Murariu, Gérard Toubeau, Claire Corot, Luce Vander Elst and Robert N. Muller

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.423

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      The goal of the present work was to develop and validate various in vitro biomedical applications of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO). USPIO coated with dextran, starch, or bisphosphonate exposing carboxylate groups were synthesized and some of them were functionalized by conjugating various biomolecules, such as biotin, streptavidin, and apoptosis, or VCAM-1 specific peptides. Our results confirm that rapid and simple in vitro detection of a diversity of functionalized USPIO with relevance in medicine is possible by the existing NMR techniques and by chemical staining reactions.

    8. Use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for non-invasive multimodal cell tracking of human pancreatic islets (pages 251–259)

      Brad P. Barnett, Jesus Ruiz-Cabello, Partha Hota, Ronald Ouwerkerk, Michael J. Shamblott, Cal Lauzon, Piotr Walczak, Wesley D. Gilson, Vadappuram P. Chacko, Dara L. Kraitchman, Aravind Arepally and Jeff W.M. Bulte

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.424

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      Perfluorocarbon-labeled islets can be effectively fluorinated for visualization by 19F MRI, can be made acoustically reflective for detection by ultrasound (US) imaging, and, when brominated, can be made sufficiently brradiopaque allowing visualization with computed tomography (CT).

    9. 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in the follow-up of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (pages 260–266)

      Rose Ghanooni, Isabelle Delpierre, Michèle Magremanne, Catherine Vervaet, Nicolas Dumarey, Myriam Remmelink, Simon Lacroix, Nicola Trotta, Sergio Hassid and Serge Goldman

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.425

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      We evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDGPET/CT and MRI for the assessment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of 18F-FDGPET/CT in the differentiation between residual tumor and radiation-induced changes, as early as two weeks after treatment.

    10. A fluorescent chromophore TOTO-3 as a ‘smart probe’ for the assessment of ultrasound-mediated local drug delivery in vivo (pages 267–274)

      Roel Deckers, Anna Yudina, Laura C. Cardoit and Chrit T. W. Moonen

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.426

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      In this study we investigate the feasibility of using a fluorescent nuclear acid stain (TOTO-3) as a model drug to monitor in real-time US-mediated delivery by in vivo fluorescence imaging. The intensity of the measured fluorescent light emission is a measure for the amount of delivered model drug, which significant higher in the sonicated tumor.

    11. Real-time 3D MRI of contrast agents in whole living mice (pages 275–281)

      Emilie Bled, Wadie Ben Hassen, Line Pourtau, Philippe Mellet, Titus Lanz, Dorothee Schüler, Pierre Voisin, Jean-Michel Franconi, Eric Thiaudière and Sylvain Miraux

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.429

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      A specific mouse whole body coil and a dedicated gradient system at 4.7T are coupled with an ultra-fast 3D gradient echo MRI and keyhole reconstruction technique to obtain 3D whole body dynamic T1-weighted or T2*-weighted imaging. The technique is used to visualize the real-time distribution of non-targeting T1 and T2* contrast agent in a glioma-bearing mouse model.

    12. Assessment of melanoma extent and melanoma metastases invasion using electron paramagnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging (pages 282–288)

      Quentin Godechal, Florence Defresne, Pierre Danhier, Philippe Leveque, Paolo Ettore Porporato, Pierre Sonveaux, Jean-François Baurain, Olivier Feron and Bernard Gallez

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.430

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      In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of EPR spectrometry and imaging to report on the cutaneous melanoma extent and the extension of lung metastases by comparing the method with bioluminescence imaging (BLI). We observed a direct relationship between the EPR and the bioluminescence intensity, and for cutaneous melanoma, better results for EPR than for BLI. The actual limit of detection of melanin by EPR was then calculated to complete the characterization of the method.

    13. Pharmacokinetics and magnetic resonance imaging of biodegradable macromolecular blood-pool contrast agent PG–Gd in non-human primates: a pilot study (pages 289–297)

      Mei Tian, Xiaoxia Wen, Edward F. Jackson, Chaan Ng, Rajesh Uthamanthil, Dong Liang, Juri G. Gelovani and Chun Li

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.431

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      We evaluated biodegradable poly(L-glutamic acid)-benzyl-DTPA-Gd (PG-Gd) for its pharmacokinetics and MRI enhancement in nonhuman primates. Our data indicated that PG-Gd could be cleared from the body and was an efficient blood-pool MR contrast agent.

    14. Surface functionalization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for the development of highly efficient magnetic resonance probe for macrophages (pages 298–307)

      Chao Huang, Koon Gee Neoh, Liang Wang, En-Tang Kang and Borys Shuter

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.427

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      Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with poly(DL-lactic acid-co-malic acid) are biocompatible with a high r2/r1 ratio of 516 and are readily taken in by macrophages. The Rmath image effects of cell-bound nanoparticles outweigh R2 effects. Detection of small amounts of labeled cells with high sensitivity is possible. Hence, these nanoparticles are potentially useful as magnetic resonance probe for targeting macrophages.

    15. Improved detection of pancreatic islets in vivo using double contrast (pages 308–313)

      Vít Herynek, Zuzana Berková, Eva Dovolilová, Daniel Jirák, Jan Kříž, Peter Girman, František Saudek and Milan Hájek

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.432

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      We demonstrate on an animal model that the detection of pancreatic islets labeled by iron oxide-based contrast agents and transplanted into the liver can be improved using the intravenous administration of a suitable gadolinium contrast agent prior to MRI. Double contrast significantly improves the accuracy of automated and semi-automated procedures for islet segmentation and quantification.

    16. Labelling dendritic cells with SPIO has implications for their subsequent in vivo migration as assessed with cellular MRI (pages 314–327)

      Sonali N. de Chickera, Jonatan Snir, Christy Willert, Roja Rohani, Ronan Foley, Paula J. Foster and Gregory A. Dekaban

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.433

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      Results from this study demonstrate that signal loss generated due to the presence of SPIO reflects the kinetics of DC migration in vivo. Labelling DC with SPIO reduces overall DC migration, as least in part due to nanoparticle size. Magnetic separation of SPIO-labelled (SPIO+) DC from unlabelled (SPIO) DC prior to injection increases the number of SPIO+ DC which migrate to lymph nodes. Corresponding MR image data better correlates with the presence of DC in vivoas and to the associated immunological response.

  4. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover and Masthead
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    5. Short Communications
    1. The application of ZnO luminescent nanoparticles in labeling mice (pages 328–330)

      Zhan-Yan Pan, Jun Liang, Zhi-Zhong Zheng, Huan-Huan Wang and Huan-Ming Xiong

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.434

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      Photoluminescent ZnO@polymer core–shell nanoparticles were used in mouse imaging through intradermal injections and intravenous injections, and the results proved that such ZnO fluorescence probes are nontoxic to live mice and they have great potential in in vivo applications.

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