Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 1

January/February 2012

Volume 7, Issue 1

Pages 51–99

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1463

  2. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    1. Molecular imaging: challenges of bringing imaging of intracellular targets into common clinical use (pages 1–6)

      Tore Skotland

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.458

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      Animal studies have during the last years revealed a great potential for molecular imaging with different types of targeting molecules. Challenges of bringing such agents into common clinical use are discussed, with a special focus on the challenges to image intracellular targets following intravenous injection of the agents.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Full Papers
    1. Targeted RGD nanoparticles for highly sensitive in vivo integrin receptor imaging (pages 7–18)

      Ren-Yen Lin, Kasala Dayananda, Ting-Jung Chen, Chiao-Yun Chen, Gin-Chung Liu, Kun-Liang Lin and Yun-Ming Wang

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.457

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      The USPIO nanoparticles surface is modified with mPPDA-silane and then conjugated with RGD. The in vitro and in vivo MR imaging studies are performed to evaluate targeting specificity and to differentiate the expression level of integrin receptor. This result implices that the RGD nanoparticles, which greatly enhance the MR imaging, are sufficiently sensitive to detect a tumor at an early stage.

    2. Nanoparticle-based PARACEST agents: the quenching effect of silica nanoparticles on the CEST signal from surface-conjugated chelates (pages 19–25)

      Osasere M. Evbuomwan, Matthew E. Merritt, Garry E. Kiefer and A. Dean Sherry

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.459

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      CEST signal of EuDOTA–(gly)4− is quenched upon conjugation to the surface of silica nanoparticles partially due to rapid prototropic exchange catalyzed by charged groups on the nanoparticle surface.

    3. Improved pH measurements with a single PARACEST MRI contrast agent (pages 26–34)

      Vipul R. Sheth, Guanshu Liu, Yuguo Li and Mark D. Pagel

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.460

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      A PARACEST MRI contrast agent, Yb–DO3A–oAA, has two CEST effects that are dependent on pH. A ratio derived from these CEST effects can accurately and precisely measure pH in a manner that is independent of concentration, T1 relaxation time, and incomplete saturation.

    4. Detection of viability of transplanted beta cells labeled with a novel contrast agent – polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by magnetic resonance imaging (pages 35–44)

      Bo Zhang, Biao Jiang, Ying Chen, Hai Huang, Qiuping Xie, Muxing Kang, Hui Zhang, Chuanxin Zhai and Yulian Wu

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.461

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      We used self-synthesied pvp-SPIO to label beta-cell line or islets. We observed our PVP-SPIO displayed good biocompatibility and magnetic properties, and possessed superior labeling efficiency than Feridex. There existed correlation between the number of labeled cells and R2 value on MRI. The signal intensity and the intracellular iron content also well correlated with the viability of labeled cells. The signal intensity on MRI might be useful predictor to evaluate the number and the viability of labeled cells.

    5. In vivo high-resolution 3D Overhauser-enhanced MRI in mice at 0.2 T (pages 45–50)

      Philippe Massot, Elodie Parzy, Line Pourtau, Philippe Mellet, Guillaume Madelin, Sylvain Marque, Jean-Michel Franconi and Eric Thiaudiere

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.464

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      Three-dimensional Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI) of a free radical injected in glioma-bearing mice was performed at a constant field of 0.194 T. Images were acquired within 5 min without significant animal overheating. Signal amplifications ranged from 2 in tumors to 10 in brain arteries. Time-course of signal enhancement could be measured by 2D OMRI at 15 s time intervals. The method opens the way for molecular imaging of biological activities able to generate OMRI-visible free radicals.

      Color map of signal enhancement in a selected slice of a 3D image of mouse brain.

    6. MR imaging of human pancreatic cancer xenograft labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide in nude mice (pages 51–58)

      Chao Ying Wu, Yu Pu, Gang Liu, Yang Shao, Qing Song Ma and Xiao Ming Zhang

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.465

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      Human pancreatic cancer cells labeled with SPIO were inoculated into nude mice to induce tumor xenograft and MR imaging performed with a 1.5 T MR scanner at the first, second and third week after the inoculation. The tumor xenograft showed significant center and peripheral signal intensity patterns on MR imaging, which derived from the heterogeneous distribution of iron following the time of inoculation. This would indicate that MR imaging may monitor the development of the tumor.

    7. Fluorescent magnetoliposomes as a platform technology for functional and molecular MR and optical imaging (pages 59–67)

      Michael Hodenius, Christian Würth, Jabadurai Jayapaul, John E. Wong, Twan Lammers, Jessica Gätjens, Susanne Arns, Natascha Mertens, Ioana Slabu, Gergana Ivanova, Jörg Bornemann, Marcel De Cuyper, Ute Resch-Genger and Fabian Kiessling

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.467

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      The fluorophore-normalized fluorescence, quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of rhodamine B-containing fluorescent magnetoliposomes (FLU-ML) were substantially reduced by inner filter effects as the magnetoliposome concentration was increased, by increasing molar rhodamine B fraction, and by quenching originating from the iron oxide cores. However, the internalized FLU-ML in human prostata carcinoma cells were clearly visible by fluorescence microscopy. At the FLU-ML concentrations used (up to 3 × 10−3 M Fe), cell viability was not substantially impaired.

    8. Multimodal liposomes for SPECT/MR imaging as a tool for in situ relaxivity measurements (pages 68–75)

      Anke de Vries, Maarten B. Kok, Honorius M. H. F. Sanders, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J. Strijkers and Holger Grüll

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.468

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      We propose a multimodal radiolabeled paramagnetic liposomal contrast agent for simultaneous imaging with SPECT and MRI. As SPECT-based quantification allows determination of the gadolinium concentration, the MRI signal can be deconvoluted to derive the net contrast agent relaxivity. The latter provides indirect information about the intracellular location of the multimodal nanoparticle as a reduced relaxivity indicates compartmentalization into cell organelles (i.e. endosomes).

    9. Hybrid SPECT/cardiac-gated first-pass perfusion CT: locating transplanted cells relative to infarcted myocardial targets (pages 76–84)

      Eric Sabondjian, Andrea J. Mitchell, Gerald Wisenberg, James White, Kimberley J. Blackwood, Jane Sykes, Lela Deans, Robert Z. Stodilka and Frank S. Prato

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.469

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      A challenge with cardiac cell therapy is determining the location of cells relative to the region of reduced perfusion in the myocardium. We have developed a novel imaging technique by sequentially acquiring 111In-labeled cell information and first-pass perfusion CT information using the Siemens Symbia-T6 SPECT/CT system to obtain a single fused image displaying both sets of information. We have shown that this is an effective hybrid platform for the localization of cells in relation to the area of reduced perfusion.

    10. Assessment of real-time myocardial uptake and enzymatic conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate in pigs using slice selective magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pages 85–94)

      Luca Menichetti, Francesca Frijia, Alessandra Flori, Florian Wiesinger, Vincenzo Lionetti, Giulio Giovannetti, Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Fabio A. Recchia, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Maria Filomena Santarelli and Massimo Lombardi

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.480

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      Hyperpolarized 13C-MRS can potentially become a powerful tool to study the physiology of organs such as the heart, through the quantification of kinetic patterns under pathophysiological conditions. In this study we assessed myocardial uptake and metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate in anesthetized pigs during dobutamine-induced stimulation. We detected an increase of the apparent kinetic constants for bicarbonate and lactate of two fold during dobutamine infusion: these data parallel with the Rate Pressure Product, an indirect parameter of cardiac oxygen consumption.

    11. Improving T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents through the conjugation of an esteramide dendrimer to high-water-coordination Gd(III) hydroxypyridinone complexes (pages 95–99)

      Piper J. Klemm, William C. Floyd III, Danil E. Smiles, Jean M. J. Fréchet and Kenneth N. Raymond

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.483

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      Hexadentate 1,4,7-triazacyclonane (TACN) capped Gd-hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) complexes with 2 or 3 sites open for water coordination have been synthesized. These complexes have been conjugated via peptide bond formation to a 40 kDa degradable esteramide (EA) dendrimer to increase relaxivity (to r1 = 31 mM-1s-1, r2 = 52 mM-1s-1 at 60 MHz and 37 °C), solubility, and biocompatibility.