Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 1

January/February 2013

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages i–iii, 1–100

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communications
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1503

  2. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communications
    1. Performance of a new fluorescence-labeled MMP inhibitor to image tumor MMP activity in vivo in comparison to an MMP-activatable probe (pages 1–11)

      Bianca Waschkau, Andreas Faust, Michael Schäfers and Christoph Bremer

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1486

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      The fluorescence-labeled low-molecular-weight MMPI Cy5.5-AF489 can be successfully applied to whole-body fluorescence imaging to monitor and quantify MMP activity in xenografted tumors in vivo. In contrast to MMP-mediated activatable fluorescent probes, Cy5.5-AF489 enables a much faster non-invasive detection of MMP activities in tumors. Molecular imaging with the use of this fluorescent probe could aid in providing new opportunities for early detection of tumors and/or metastases, to visualize their expressions and activities and/or their response to therapy.

    2. Hindered diffusion of MRI contrast agents in rat brain extracellular micro-environment assessed by acquisition of dynamic T1 and T2 maps (pages 12–19)

      B. Marty, B. Djemaï, C. Robic, M. Port, P. Robert, J. Valette, F. Boumezbeur, D. Le Bihan, F. Lethimonnier and S. Mériaux

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1489

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      In this study, we present a methodology based on quantitative MRI acquisitions, to precisely assess contrast agent concentration after injection and follow its diffusion in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

      Our results provide accurate data on probe hydrodynamic sizes and tissues tortuosity, as well as an estimation of characteristic diffusion time in rat brain. These findings are valuable information to design molecular probes and calibrate molecular imaging experiments.

    3. Magnetic labeling of pancreatic β-cells modulates the glucose- and insulin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT (pages 20–26)

      Hoe Suk Kim, Lianji Tian, Shunmei Lin, Joo Hee Cha, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park and Woo Kyung Moon

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1490

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      SPIO labeling results in an increase in the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AKT, but the significant decrease in the glucose– and insulin–stimulated phosphorylation of AKT and glucose–stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and which caused a reduction in the insulin produced upon stimulation with glucose or insulin. SPIO labeling could influence the function of pancreatic β–cells through modulation of the glucose– or insulin–induced activation of ERK1/2 and AKT that leads to insulin biosynthesis.

    4. VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice (pages 27–39)

      Leonie Rouleau, Romain Berti, Vanessa W. K. Ng, Carl Matteau-Pelletier, Tina Lam, Pierre Saboural, Ashok K. Kakkar, Frédéric Lesage, Eric Rhéaume and Jean-Claude Tardif

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1491

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      A photoacoustic molecular probe based on gold nanoshells targeting VCAM-1 in mice was designed and toxicity tests were performed in vitro on cell cultures and in vivo in small animals. The immunonanoshells were assessed for specificity and sensitivity. Photoacoustic tomography capacity to detect gold nanoshells both in phantoms and in vivo was examined. Ex vivo optical projection tomography of hearts and aortas from atherosclerotic and control mice confirmed the selective accumulation of the immunonanoshells in atherosclerotic-prone regions in mice.

    5. Amide conjugates of the DO3A-N-(α-amino)propionate ligand: leads for stable, high relaxivity contrast agents for MRI? (pages 40–49)

      Miguel F. Ferreira, André F. Martins, Catarina I. O. Martins, Paula M. Ferreira, Éva Tóth, Tiago B. Rodrigues, Daniel Calle, Sebastian Cerdan, Pilar López-Larrubia, José A. Martins and Carlos F. G. C. Geraldes

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1492

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      A novel synthetic methodology for preparing amide conjugates of the DO3A-N-(α-amino)propionate chelator is described. The Gd[DO3A-N-(α-benzoylamido)propionate] chelate retains the fast water exchange and stability properties of its parent Gd[DO3A-N-(α-amino)propionate] chelate. The Gd[DO3A-N-(α-benzoylamido)propionate] complex is mainly excreted via the kidneys, producing a significant increase in the kidney medulla/cortex enhancement ratio in MR images of Wistar rats, reflecting probably its higher lipophilicity compared with Gd(DOTA). Macromolecular conjugates might allow combination of high relaxivities with stability for potentially safe in vivo applications.

    6. Rapid spectrophotometric technique for quantifying iron in cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: potential translation to the clinic (pages 50–56)

      Esmaeel R. Dadashzadeh, Matthew Hobson, L. Henry Bryant Jr, Dana D. Dean and Joseph A. Frank

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1493

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      A practical and accurate rapid spectrophotometric technique to quantify iron concentration in SPIO-labeled cells has been developed. The technique protocol lyses cells with 10% SDS in 1 min, does not require overnight acid digestion of SPIO, and measures colloidal iron directly using readily available UV–vis spectrophotometers. This protocol has comparable accuracy and limits of quantification to ICP-MS, NMR-R2 relaxometry and other colorimetric methods and can be applied to other metal nanoparticles (e.g. gold) used for labeling cells.

    7. Field dependence of T1 for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate (pages 57–62)

      N. Chattergoon, F. Martínez-Santiesteban, W. B. Handler, J. H. Ardenkjær-Larsen and T. J. Scholl

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1494

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      The magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has been measured using field-cycled relaxometry for fields ranging from 0.237 mT to 0.705 T. The relaxation effects of the triarylmethyl radical used for dynamic nuclear polarization on the C-1 of pyruvate have also been determined at field strengths of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 T. These data are important for optimization of the hyperpolarization process and minimization of signal loss during transportation from polarizer to imaging magnet.

    8. Contrast enhancement by lipid-based MRI contrast agents in mouse atherosclerotic plaques; a longitudinal study (pages 63–71)

      Brigit den Adel, Linda M. van der Graaf, Ivo Que, Gustav J. Strijkers, Clemens W. Löwik, Robert E. Poelmann and Louise van der Weerd

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1496

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      The intrinsic ability of two differently sized gadolinium-based contrast agents to enhance atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE−/− mice was evaluated with MRI. The maximum enhancement for Gd-loaded micelles and liposomes was shown to be dependent on contrast agent size and blood circulation kinetics, underscoring that plaque enhancement by non-targeted and targeted contrast agents must be interpreted with care. The timing of contrast-enhanced MRI is thus of utmost importance and will need to be optimized for every novel contrast agent and animal model.

    9. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of glucose – initial experience (pages 72–82)

      Hyla Allouche-Arnon, Trevor Wade, Lanette Friesen Waldner, Valentina N. Miller, J. Moshe Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull and Charles A. McKenzie

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1497

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      The first nonradioactive images of glucose distribution were obtained in live rats by hyperpolarized MRI. Hyperpolarized [13C6, 2 H7]glucose MRI may offer radiation free angiography and visualization of cardiac glucose uptake.

    10. You have free access to this content
      Evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Endorem®) as a photoacoustic contrast agent for intra-operative nodal staging (pages 83–91)

      Diederik J. Grootendorst, Jithin Jose, Raluca M. Fratila, Martijn Visscher, Aldrik H. Velders, Bennie Ten Haken, Ton G. Van Leeuwen, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Srirang Manohar and Theo J. M. Ruers

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1498

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      We subcutaneously injected five Wistar rats with variable amounts of a superparamagnetic iron oxide dispersion (Endorem®) and scanned the resected lymph nodes using a tomographic photoacoustic setup. Findings were compared with histology, vibrating sample magnetometry and 14 T MR-imaging revealing a correlation in distribution. The possibility of detecting SPIO deposits in lymph nodes using photoacoustics could open up possibilities for intra-operative nodal staging in oncology.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communications
    1. Gd2O3 nanoparticles: size-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (pages 92–95)

      A. T. M. Anishur Rahman, Peter Majewski and Krasimir Vasilev

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1481

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      Optimum gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle size for maximal contrast enhancement is ~2.3 nm. Below and above this particle size the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1 = 1/r1) of water protons at 7.0 T drastically decreases. Since, r1 is directly related to the quality of magnetic resonance imaging, the results presented in this article have significant implications for clinical diagnostics.

    2. In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice (pages 96–100)

      Nobuyuki Kosaka, Makoto Mitsunaga, Peter L. Choyke and Hisataka Kobayashi

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1487

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      In vivo real-time lymphatic tracking using quantum-dot optical imaging enables real-time observation of lymph flow in vivo and subtle visualization of lymphatic flow.