Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 2

March/April 2013

Volume 8, Issue 2

Pages 140–209

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communication
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1504

  2. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communication
    1. In vitro study of SPIO-labeled human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 (pages 101–107)

      Mingmin Tong, Fei Xiong, Yuzhen Shi, Song Luo, Zhenjuan Liu, Zhengcan Wu and Zhongqiu Wang

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1499

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The figure shows electrophoresis results of Survivin gene and Survivin linked to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (labeled as Sur-MNPs) at different ratios. 1, Survivin antisense DNA; 2–5, the sample of Sur-MNPs at ratios of 1: 10, 1: 30, 1: 50 and 1: 100. The survivin antisense DNA was successfully labeled to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and the mobility of the Sur-MNPs was tetarded obviously, especially at the ratio of 1: 100.

    2. Gadolinium-containing magnetic resonance contrast media: investigation on the possible transchelation of Gd3+ to the glycosaminoglycan heparin (pages 108–116)

      Matthias Taupitz, Nicola Stolzenburg, Monika Ebert, Jörg Schnorr, Ralf Hauptmann, Harald Kratz, Bernd Hamm and Susanne Wagner

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1500

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Contrast media based on linear gadolinium complexes showed a relevant increase in T1-relaxivity following 2 h of incubation in heparin solution in the presence of 2.0 mm ZnCl2, indicating transchelation with formation of a macromolecular Gd-heparin complex. Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). GAGs are strong chelators and occur in the extracellular matrix. Interaction with GAGs might explain retention of Gd3+ in human tissues, contributing to the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in end-stage renal disease patients.

    3. Passive targeting of lipid-based nanoparticles to mouse cardiac ischemia–reperfusion injury (pages 117–126)

      Tessa Geelen, Leonie E. Paulis, Bram F. Coolen, Klaas Nicolay and Gustav J. Strijkers

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1501

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The accumulation and distribution kinetics of lipid-based micelles and liposomes were studied in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury, using MRI and CLSM. Both types of nanoparticles accumulated massively and exclusively in the infarcted myocardium, where more accumulation was observed in acute compared to chronic ischemia–reperfusion injury. Owing to this effective accumulation, paramagnetic and fluorescent, lipid-based micelles and liposomes are promising vehicles for (visualization of) drug delivery in myocardial infarction.

    4. A dual magnetic resonance imaging/fluorescent contrast agent for Cathepsin-D detection (pages 127–139)

      Robert Ta, Mojmir Suchy, Joshua H.K. Tam, Alex X. Li, Francisco S. Martinez-Santiesteban, Timothy J. Scholl, Robert H.E. Hudson, Robert Bartha and Stephen H. Pasternak

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1502

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An MRI contrast agent has been developed that is targeted to Cathepsin-D. The MR-sensitive portion of the agent was conjugated to a peptide containing a Cathepsin-D cleavage site and a Tat peptide. The Tat peptide promotes transport across the blood–brain barrier, where cleavage/removal by Cathepsin-D traps the agent. The agent was metalated with Gd3+ for T1 contrast or Tm3+ for PARACEST detection. The agent is preferentially taken up by cultured cells over-expressing Cathepsin-D, and retained in the brain of an Alzheimer disease mouse model. This agent could be used to diagnosis Alzheimer disease.

    5. Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA: intermediate-affinity chelates for manganese-enhanced MRI (pages 140–146)

      Yoshiteru Seo, Keitaro Satoh, Hironobu Morita, Akira Takamata, Kazuto Watanabe, Takashi Ogino, Tooru Hasebe and Masataka Murakami

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1510

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In order to improve the image enhancement of manganese-enhanced MRI and decrease the toxicity of free manganese ions, we investigated intermediate-affinity chelates: Mn-HIDA and Mn-citrate. Mn chelates have minimum effects on cardiac function and sympathetic activity in rats. After venous infusion, Mn chelates diffuse into the brain parenchyma via the cerebrospinal fluid. Responses in a small hypothalamic nucleus, the supraoptic nucleus, are detectable using manganese-enhanced MRI.

    6. Concentrations of Gd–BOPTA in cholestatic fatty rat livers: role of transport functions through membrane proteins (pages 147–156)

      Catherine M. Pastor, Michael Wissmeyer and Philippe Millet

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1511

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hepatic concentrations of contrast agents (nmol/g) during the perfusion of 200 μM DTPA (in extracellular space) and 200 μM BOPTA (in extracellular space and hepatocytes). Livers are isolated and perfused from normal (□ and green fit) and fatty livers (■ and red fit). Fits obtained by pharmacokinetic modeling are shown on experimental data. The maximal concentration of Gd-BOPTA is similar in normal fatty livers despite a decreased cell uptake and bile excretion through membrane proteins.

    7. Detection of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression with USPIO-enhanced molecular MRI in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia (pages 157–164)

      M. Fréchou, V. Beray-Berthat, J.-S. Raynaud, S. Mériaux, F. Gombert, E. Lancelot, M. Plotkine, C. Marchand-Leroux, S. Ballet, P. Robert, G. Louin and I. Margaill

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1512

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There is a clear clinical need for tools to evaluate vascular damage in stroke patients. In this context, P03011, an USPIO (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide) conjugated with a peptide targeting VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) was injected in mice with cerebral ischemia. Brain MRI T2* showed hypointense signals in P03011-treated animals and immunochemistry demonstrated the co-localization of the USPIO with its target. This study provides proof of concept for peptide-conjugated USPIO as tools for in vivo VCAM-1 detection by MRI.

    8. In vivo quantitative assessment of cell viability of gadolinium or iron-labeled cells using MRI and bioluminescence imaging (pages 165–174)

      Jamal Guenoun, Alessandro Ruggiero, Gabriela Doeswijk, Roel C. Janssens, Gerben A. Koning, Gyula Kotek, Gabriel P. Krestin and Monique R. Bernsen

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1513

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In cell therapy, non-invasive monitoring of in vivo cell fate is challenging. In this study, bimodal imaging with MRI and bioluminescence showed Gd-liposome-labeled cells to provide a more accurate and specific assessment of overall cell transplant viability than SPIO particles. Viable Gd cells can be differentiated from non-viable Gd cells even by visual interpretation. Gd should thus be favored over SPIO in the noninvasive assessment of overall cell transplant viability in vivo.

    9. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of MR molecular imaging probes using J591 mAb-conjugated SPIONs for specific detection of prostate cancer (pages 175–184)

      Mohammad Abdolahi, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Sophie Laurent, Corine Sermeus, Farzin Firozian, Barry J. Allen, Sebastien Boutry and Robert N. Muller

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1514

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For specific MR imaging of prostate cancer cells, we take advantage of the fact that many types of prostate cancer cells express high levels of prostate-specific membrane antigen on their cell surface. The imaging strategy is to use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles attached to an antibody (J591) that binds to the extracellular domain of PSMA.

    10. MRI contrast variation of thermosensitive magnetoliposomes triggered by focused ultrasound: a tool for image-guided local drug delivery (pages 185–192)

      Cyril Lorenzato, Alexandru Cernicanu, Marie-Edith Meyre, Matthieu Germain, Agnès Pottier, Laurent Levy, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, Clemens Bos, Chrit Moonen and Pierre Smirnov

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1515

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thermosensitive liposomes are attractive carriers for local chemotherapy since release of their contents can be triggered non-invasively by an external heat source. Labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles makes these liposomes visible on MRI and, moreover, provides a detection system for liposome membrane permeabilization. Results showed significant differences for MRI signal enhancement and relaxivities before and after heating, demonstrating this systems' potential for imaging guidance of drug delivery.

    11. Real-time high-resolution magnetic resonance tracking of macrophage subpopulations in a murine inflammation model: a pilot study with a commercially available cryogenic probe (pages 193–203)

      Achraf Al Faraj, Nathalie Luciani, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Essam Mattar, Olivier Clement, Claire Wilhelm and Florence Gazeau

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1516

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Macrophages present different polarization states and functions in response to environmental stimuli. The dynamic of their migration to sites of inflammation is not fully elucidated. We propose a cell tracking approach, using high-resolution-MRI and cellular magnetic labeling to monitor trafficking of differently polarized macrophages (M0, M1, M2) after systemic injection to mice bearing inflammation.

  3. Short Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Full Papers
    4. Short Communication
    1. Quantitative imaging of the tissue contrast agent [Gd(DTPA)]2− in articular cartilage by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (pages 204–209)

      Alessandra Sussulini, Edzard Wiener, Tim Marnitz, Bei Wu, Berit Müller, Bernd Hamm and J. Sabine Becker

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cmmi.1509

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging was applied for the first time to quantify gadolinium in articular cartilage. Three analytical strategies were used for gadolinium quantification: one-point calibration, standard addition method (employing matrix-matched laboratory standards) and isotope dilution analysis using highly enriched stable Gd-155 isotope. The tissue contrast agent concentrations of [Gd(DTPA)]2− in cartilage measured in this work are in agreement with the findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging.

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