• in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy;
  • in vivo MRS;
  • brain;
  • magnetic field;
  • cerebral bioenergetics;
  • brain metabolism;
  • brain function;
  • MRI


One of the greatest merits of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology used in biomedical research and clinical settings is its capability of measuring various physiological parameters in vivo. Besides MR imaging (MRI), which has been routinely applied to obtain vital information in living organs at normal and diseased states, in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates, bioenergetics, and their dynamic changes in the human and animals noninvasively. These MRS capabilities are further enhanced at high/ultrahigh magnetic fields because of significant gain in NMR detection sensitivity and improvement in the spectral resolution. Recent progress has shown that in vivo MRS holds great promise in many biomedical research areas—in particular, brain research. This article provides a broad review of (i) in vivo multinuclear MRS approaches, (ii) advanced MRS methodologies, and (iii) MRS applications for determining cerebral metabolism as well as bioenergetics at resting brain state and their dynamic changes in response to brain activation. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 27A: 84-121, 2005