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Keywords:

  • parallel imaging;
  • accelerated imaging;
  • PatLoc;
  • O-Space;
  • nonlinear imaging

Abstract

Sequences that encode the spatial information of an object using nonlinear gradient fields are a new frontier in MRI, with potential to provide lower peripheral nerve stimulation, windowed fields of view, tailored spatially-varying resolution, curved slices that mirror physiological geometry, and, most importantly, very fast parallel imaging with multichannel coils. The acceleration for multichannel images is generally explained by the fact that curvilinear gradient isocontours better complement the azimuthal spatial encoding provided by typical receiver arrays. However, the details of this complementarity have been more difficult to specify. We present a simple and intuitive framework for describing the mechanics of image formation with nonlinear gradients, and we use this framework to review some the main classes of nonlinear encoding schemes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 40A: 253–267, 2012.