SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Samet J, Munoz A. Evolution of the cohort study. Epidemiol Rev 1998; 20: 114.
  • 2
    Willett W, Colditz G. Approaches for conducting large cohort studies. Epidemiol Rev 1998; 20: 919.
  • 3
    Willett W. Future research directions nutritional epidemiology, vol. 30, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998; 48496.
  • 4
    Riboli E, Kaaks R. The EPIC project: rationale and study design. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26(Suppl 1): S614.
  • 5
    Kolonel L, Henderson B, Hankin J, et al. A multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: baseline characteristics. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 34657.
  • 6
    Thun M, Calle E, Rodriguez C, Wingo P. Epidemiologic research at the American Cancer Society. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 8618.
  • 7
    Hammond E, Horn D. Smoking and death rates—report on 44 months of follow-up on 187,783 men. Part I. Total mortality. JAMA 1958;166: 115972.
  • 8
    Hammond E, Horn D. Smoking and death rates—report on 44 months of follow-up on 187,783 men. Part II. Death rates by cause. JAMA 1958;166: 1294308.
  • 9
    Hammond C. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. In: HaenszelW, editor. Epidemiologic approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases. National Cancer Institute monograph 19. Bethesda: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Cancer Institute, 1966: 124204.
  • 10
    Thun M, Lally C, Calle E, Flanders W, Heath C. Excess mortality among cigarette smokers: changes in a 20-year interval. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 122330.
  • 11
    Thun M, Heath C. Changes in mortality from smoking in two American Cancer Society prospective studies since 1959. Prev Med 1997; 26: 4226.
  • 12
    Thun M, Lally C, Flannery J, Calle E, Flanders W, Heath C. Cigarette smoking and changes in the histopathology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 15806.
  • 13
    Lew E, Garfinkle L. Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J Chron Dis 1979;32: 56376.
  • 14
    Garfinkel L. Overweight and cancer. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103(6): 10346.
  • 15
    Garfinkel L. Overweight and mortality. Cancer 1986; 58(8): 18269.
  • 16
    Williamson D, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flander W, Byers T, Heath C. A prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in never smoking overweight US white women aged 40–64 years. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 112841.
  • 17
    Stevens J, Plankey M, Williamson D, Thun MJ, Rust PF, Palesch Y, et al. The body mass index—mortality relationship in white and African American women. Obesity Res 1998; 6: 26877.
  • 18
    Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk E, Williamson D, Thun M, Wood J. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 17.
  • 19
    Hammond E. Smoking habits and air pollution in relation to lung cancer. In: LeeD, editor. Environmental factors in respiratory disease. New York: Academic Press, 1972.
  • 20
    Holmberg L, Ekbom A, Calle E, Mokdad A, Byers T. Parental age and breast cancer mortality: a cohort study of 384,000 women. Epidemiology 1995; 6: 4257.
  • 21
    Michels-Blanck H, Byers T, Mokdad A, Will J, Calle E. Menstrual patterns and breast cancer mortality. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 5436.
  • 22
    Holmberg L, Ekbom A, Calle E, Mokdad A, Byers T. Breast cancer mortality in relation to self-reported use of breast self-examination: a cohort study of 450,000 women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1997; 43: 13740.
  • 23
    Garfinkel L. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the American Cancer Society prospective studies. Natl Cancer Inst Mongr 1985; 67: 4952.
  • 24
    Calle EE, Terrell DD. Utility of the National Death Index for ascertainment of mortality among Cancer Prevention Study II participants. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137(2): 23541.
  • 25
    Thun M, Peto R, Lopez A, Monaco JH, Henley SJ, Heath CW Jr. , et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality in middle-aged and elderly US adults. N Engl J Med 1997;337: 170514.
  • 26
    Rodriguez C, Calle E, Coates R, Miracle-McMahill H, Thun M, Heath C. Estrogen replacement therapy and fatal ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 82835.
  • 27
    Calle E, Miracle-McMahill H, Thun M, Heath C. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of fatal colon cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 51723.
  • 28
    Willis D, Calle E, Miracle-McMahill H, Heath C. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of fatal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 44957.
  • 29
    Calle E, Mervis C, Thun M, Rodriguez C, Wingo P, Heath C. Diethylstilbestrol and risk of fatal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 64552.
  • 30
    Rodriguez C, Patel A, Calle E, Thun M. Estrogen replacement therapy and ovarian cancer mortality in a large prospective study of U.S. women. JAMA 2001;285: 14605.
  • 31
    Thun M, Namboodiri M, Heath C. Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 15936.
  • 32
    Thun M, Namboodiri M, Calle E, Flanders D, Heath C. Aspirin use and risk of fatal cancer. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 13227.
  • 33
    Watkins M, Erickson J, Thun M, Mulinare J, Heath C. Multivitamin use and mortality in a large prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 14962.
  • 34
    Jacobs E, Patel A, Chao A, Rodriguez C, Calle E, Thun M. Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and colorectal cancer mortality in a large American Cancer Society cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 1723.
  • 35
    Pope C III, Thun M, Namboodiri M, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, et al. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151: 66974.
  • 36
    Steenland K, Thun M, Lally C, Heath C. Environmental tobacco smoking and ischemic heart disease in the American Cancer Society CPS-II cohort. Circulation 1996; 94: 6228.
  • 37
    Cardenas V, Thun M, Austin H, Lally CA, Clark WS, Greenberg RS, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention II Study. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 5764.
  • 38
    Thun M, Myers D, Day-Lally C, et al. Age and the exposure-response relationships between cigarette smoking and premature death in Cancer Prevention Study II National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control, monograph 8: changes in cigarette-related disease risks and their implication for prevention and control. NIH publication no. 97-4213. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 1997: 383475.
  • 39
    Jacobs E, Thun M, Apicella L. Cigar smoking and death from coronary heart disease in a prospective study of United States men. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 24138.
  • 40
    Thun M, Apicella L, Henley S. Estimating the number of smoking-related deaths. JAMA 2000; 284: 231920.
  • 41
    Wartenberg D, Calle E, Thun M, Heath C, Lally C, Woodruff T. Passive smoking exposure and female breast cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 166673.
  • 42
    Shapiro J, Jacobs E, Thun M. Cigar smoking in men and risk of death from tobacco-related cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 3337.
  • 43
    Chao A, Thun M, Jacobs E, Henley S, Rodriguez C, Calle E. Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 188896.
  • 44
    Calle E, Martin L, Thun M, Miracle H, Heath C. Family history, age, and risk of fatal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 67581.
  • 45
    Rodriguez C, Calle EE, Miracle-McMahill HL, Tatham LM, Wingo PA, Thun MJ, et al. Family history and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Epidemiology 1997; 8: 6537.
  • 46
    Rodriguez C, Calle EE, Tatham LM, Wingo PA, Miracle-McMahill HL, Thun MJ, et al. Family history of breast cancer as a predictor for fatal prostate cancer. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 5259.
  • 47
    Boffetta P, Stellman S, Garfinkel L. Diesel exhaust exposure and mortality among males in the American Cancer Society prospective study. Am J Intern Med 1988;14: 40315.
  • 48
    Calle E, Murphy T, Rodriguez C, Thun M, Heath C. Occupation and breast cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of US women. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 1917.
  • 49
    Kahn H, Tatham L, Rodriguez C, Calle E, Thun M, Heath C. Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 74754.
  • 50
    Calle E, Thun M, Petrelli J, Rodriguez C, Heath C. Body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 1999;341: 1097105.
  • 51
    Murphy T, Calle E, Rodriguez C, Kahn H, Thun M. Body mass index and colon cancer mortality in a large prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 84754.
  • 52
    Rodriguez C, Patel A, Calle E, Jacobs E, Chao A, Thun M. BMI, height and prostate cancer mortality in two large cohorts of U.S. adult men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10: 34553.
  • 53
    Schlesslman J. Case-control studies: design, conduct, analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  • 54
    Howe H. Cancer incidence in North America, 1988–1991. Sacramento: North American Associations of Central Cancer Registries, 1995.
  • 55
    Block G, Hartman A, Naughton D. A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiology 1990; 1: 5864.
  • 56
    Block G, Coyl L, Smucker R, Harlan L. Health Habits and History Questionnaire: diet history and other risk factors [personal computer system documentation]. Bethesda, MD: Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 1989.
  • 57
    Willett W, Sampson L, Stampfer M, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 5165.
  • 58
    Flagg E, Coates R, Calle E, Potischman N, Thun M. Validation of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Survey Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Epidemiology 2000; 11: 4628.
  • 59
    Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller J. International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62: S87193.
  • 60
    Branch NDR, Division NM. Provisional table on vitamin D content of foods. 1991.
  • 61
    United States Drug Administration. USDA nutrient database for standard reference, release 13. Washington, DC: USDA.
  • 62
    Rimm E, Giovannucci E, Stampfer M, Colditz G, Litin L, Willett W. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 111426.
  • 63
    Willett W. Reproducibility and validity of food-frequency questionnaires Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • 64
    Bergmann M, Calle E, Mervis C, Miracle-McMahill H, Thun M, Heath C. Validity of self-reported cancers in a prospective cohort study in comparison to data from state cancer registries. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 147: 55662.
  • 65
    Hankinson S, London S, Chute C, Barbieri RL, Jones L, Kaplan LA, et al. Effect of transport conditions on the stability of biochemical markers in blood. Clin Chem 1989; 35: 23136.
  • 66
    Feigelson H, Rodriguez C, Robertson A, Jacobs E, Calle EE, Reid Y, et al. Determinants of DNA yield and quality from buccal cell samples collected with mouthwash. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 10058.
  • 67
    World Health Organization. WHO Expert Committee on Physical Status. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 68
    Ainsworth B, Haskell W, Leon A, et al. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exercise 1993;25: 7180.
  • 69
    Doll R, Hill A. Lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking: a second report on the mortality of British doctors. Br Med J 1956; 2: 107181.
  • 70
    Colditz G. The Nurses' Health Study: a cohort of US women followed since 1976. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1995; 50: 404.
  • 71
    Rimm E, Stampfer M, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz G, Willett W. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 14506.
  • 72
    Fraser G, Beeson W, Phillips R. Diet and lung cancer risk in California Seventh Day Adventists. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 68393.
  • 73
    Szklo M. Population-based cohort studies. Epidemiol Rev 1998; 20: 8190.
  • 74
    Dawber T. The Framingham study: the epidemiology of atherosclerotic disease. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • 75
    Keys A. Seven countries: a multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • 76
    Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998: 1334.
  • 77
    Doll R, Hill A. The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits: a preliminary report. Br Med J 1954; 1: 14515.
  • 78
    Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 1994; 309: 90111.
  • 79
    Munger R, Folsom A, Kushi L, Kaye S, Sellers T. Dietary assessment of older Iowa women with a food frequency questionnaire: nutrient intake, reproducibility, and comparison with 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 192200.