• 1
    Manegold C. The causes and prognostic significance of low haemoglobin levels in tumor patients. Strahlenther Onkol. 1998; 174( Suppl 4): 1719.
  • 2
    Fein DA, Lee WR, Hanlon AL, et al. Pretreatment hemoglobin level influences local control and survival of T1-T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the glottic larynx. J Clin Oncol. 1995; 13: 20772083.
  • 3
    Reed WR, Hussey DH, DeGowin RL. Implications of the anemia of chronic disorders in patients anticipating radiotherapy [published erratum appears in Am J Med Sci. 1994;308:288]. Am J Med Sci. 1994; 308: 915.
  • 4
    Langer CJ. Anaemia, fatigue and quality of life in advanced malignancy: potential therapeutic role for epoetin. Erythropoiesis: New Dimensions in the Treatment of Anaemia 1997; 8: 6373.
  • 5
    Coiffier B. Retrospective analysis of hematological parameters and transfusion requirements in non-platinum chemotherapy-treated patients [abstract 346]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1998; 17: 90a.
  • 6
    Estrin JT, Schocket L, Kregenow R, Henry DH. A retrospective review of blood transfusions in cancer patients with anemia. Oncologist. 1999; 4: 318324.
  • 7
    Glaspy J, Harper P. Discussion. Semin Oncol. 2000; 27( Suppl 4): 1617.
  • 8
    Throuvalas NA, Antonadou D, Boufi M, Lavey R, Malamos N. Erythropoietin decreases transfusion requirements during radiochemotherapy [abstract 1558]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2000; 19: 394a.
  • 9
    Groopman JE, Itri LM. Chemotherapy-induced anemia in adults: incidence and treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 16161634.
  • 10
    Cella D. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) Scale: a new tool for the assessment of outcomes in cancer anemia and fatigue. Semin Hematol. 1997; 34( Suppl 2): 1319.
  • 11
    Cleeland CS, Demetri GD, Glaspy J, et al. Identifying hemoglobin level for optimal quality of life: results of an incremental analysis [abstract 2215]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1999; 18: 574a.
  • 12
    Langer CJ, Barsevick A, Bruner D, Grindel C, Leighton JC, Luckscheiter C. Correlation of quality of life (QOL) with survival, treatment response and anemia in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel [abstract 79]. Lung Cancer. 1997; 18: 23.
  • 13
    Vogelzang NJ, Breitbart W, Cella D, et al. Patient, caregiver, and oncologist perceptions of cancer-related fatigue: results of a tripart assessment survey. Semin Hematol. 1997; 34( Suppl 2): 412.
  • 14
    Ludwig H, Fritz E. Anemia in cancer patients. Semin Oncol. 1998; 25( Suppl 7): 26.
  • 15
    Barrett-Lee PJ, Bailey NP, O'Brien MER, Wager E. Large-scale UK audit of blood transfusion requirements and anaemia in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Br J Cancer. 2000; 82: 9397.
  • 16
    Skillings JR, Rogers-Melamed I, Nabholtz JM. An epidemiological review of anaemia in cancer chemotherapy in Canada [abstract]. Presented at: European Conference on Clinical Oncology and Cancer Nursing/European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Paris, France, October 29–November 2, 1995:183.
  • 17
    Skillings JR, Sridhar FG, Wong C, Paddock L. The frequency of red cell transfusion for anemia in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective cohort study. Am J Clin Oncol. 1993; 16: 2225.
  • 18
    Del Mastro L, Gennari A, Donati S. Chemotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer: role of erythropoietin in the management of anemia. Ann Oncol. 1999; 10( Suppl 5): S9194.
  • 19
    Moldawer LL, Marano MA, Wei H, et al. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha alters red blood cell kinetics and induces anemia in vivo. FASEB J. 1989; 3: 16371643.
  • 20
    Nowrousian MR, Kasper C, Oberhoff C, et al. Pathophysiology of cancer-related anemia. In: SmithJF, BoogaertsMA, EhmerB, editors. rhErythropoietin in cancer supportive treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1997: 1334.
  • 21
    Means RT, Krantz SB. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic disease. Blood. 1992; 80: 16391647.
  • 22
    Dowlati A, R'Zik S, Fillet G, Beguin Y. Anaemia of lung cancer is due to impaired erythroid marrow response to erythropoietin stimulation as well as relative inadequacy of erythropoietin production. Br J Haematol. 1997; 97: 297299.
  • 23
    Langer CJ, Leighton JC, Comis RL, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin in combination in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II toxicity, response, and survival analysis. J Clin Oncol. 1995; 13: 18601870.
  • 24
    Wood PA, Hrushesky WJM. Cisplatin-associated anemia: an erythropoietin deficiency syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1995; 95: 1650.
  • 25
    Rothmann SA, Paul P, Weick JK, McIntyre WR, Fantelli F. Effect of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum on erythropoietin production and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Int J Cell Cloning. 1985; 3: 415423.
  • 26
    Miller CB, Jones RJ, Piantadosi S, Abeloff MD, Spivak JL. Decreased erythropoietin response in patients with the anemia of cancer. N Engl J Med. 1990; 322: 16891692.
  • 27
    Okamoto H, Saijo N, Shinkai T, et al. Chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with primary lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 1992; 3: 819824.
  • 28
    Harrison LB, Shasha D, White C, Ramdeen B. Radiotherapy-associated anemia: the scope of the problem. Oncologist. 2000; 5( Suppl 2): 17.
  • 29
    Abels R, Larholt K, Nelson R. Risk of transfusion in small cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy [abstract 2642]. Blood. 1994; 84: 664a.
  • 30
    Dubray B, Mosseri V, Brunin F, et al. Anemia is associated with lower local-regional control and survival after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study. Radiology. 1996; 201: 553558.
  • 31
    Warde P, O'Sullivan B, Bristow RG, et al. T1/T2 glottic cancer managed by external beam radiotherapy: the influence of pretreatment hemoglobin on local control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998; 41: 347353.
  • 32
    Grogan M, Thomas GM, Melamed I, et al. The importance of hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer. 1999; 86: 15281536.
  • 33
    Bush RS. The significance of anemia in clinical radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1986; 12: 20472050.
  • 34
    Lee JS. The use of erythropoietin in radiation oncology. Cancer Control. 1998; 5( Suppl 1): 3340.
  • 35
    Fyles AW, Milosevic M, Wong R, et al. Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer [published erratum appears in Radiother Oncol. 1999;50:371]. Radiother Oncol. 1998; 48: 149156.
  • 36
    Albain KS, Crowley JJ, LeBlanc M, Livingston RB. Survival determinants in extensive-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: the Southwest Oncology Group experience. J Clin Oncol. 1991; 9: 16181626.
  • 37
    Glaspy J, Cavill I. Role of iron in optimizing responses of anemic cancer patients to erythropoietin. Oncology. 1999; 13: 461473.
  • 38
    Kumar P. Impact of anemia in patients with head and neck cancer. Oncologist. 2000; 5( Suppl 2): 1318.
  • 39
    Brizel DM, Dodge RK, Clough RW, Dewhirst MW. Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome. Radiother Oncol. 1999; 53: 113117.
  • 40
    Becker A, Stadler P, Lavey RS, et al. Severe anemia is associated with poor tumor oxygenation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000; 46: 459466.
  • 41
    Bush RS. The significance of anemia in clinical radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1986; 12: 20472050.
  • 42
    Glaser CM, Millesi W, Kornek GV, et al. Impact of hemoglobin level and use of recombinant erythropoietin on efficacy of preoperative chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001; 50: 705715.
  • 43
    Littlewood TJ, Bajetta E, Nortier J, Vercammen E, Rapoport B. Effects of epoetin alfa on hematologic parameters and quality of life in cancer patients receiving nonplatinum chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 28652874.
  • 44
    Khayat D. Is anemia a problem for European cancer patients and treating oncologists? Semin Oncol. 2000; 27( Suppl 4): 911.
  • 45
    Curt GA, Breitbart W, Cella D, et al. Impact of cancer-related fatigue on the lives of patients: new findings from the Fatigue Coalition. Oncologist. 2000; 5: 353360.
  • 46
    Stone P, Richards M, A'Hern R, Hardy J. A study to investigate the prevalence, severity and correlates of fatigue among patients with cancer in comparison with a control group of volunteers without cancer. Ann Oncol. 2000; 11: 561567.
  • 47
    Yellen SB, Cella DF, Webster K, Blendowski C, Kaplan E. Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997; 13: 6374.
  • 48
    Sarna L. Effectiveness of structured nursing assessment of symptom distress in advanced lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1998; 25: 10411048.
  • 49
    Glaspy J, Bukowski R, Steinberg D, Taylor C, Tchekmedyian S, Vadhan-Raj S. Impact of therapy with epoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies during cancer chemotherapy in community oncology practice. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 12181234.
  • 50
    Demetri GD, Kris M, Wade J, Degos L, Cella D. Quality-of-life benefit in chemotherapy patients treated with epoetin alfa is independent of disease response or tumor type: results from a prospective community oncology study. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 34123425.
  • 51
    Case DC Jr., Bukowski RM, Carey RW, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy for anemic cancer patients on combination chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993; 85: 801806.
  • 52
    Henry DH, Abels RI. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of cancer and chemotherapy-induced anemia: results of double-blind and open-label follow-up studies. Semin Oncol. 1994; 21( Suppl 3): 2128.
  • 53
    Leitgeb C, Pecherstorfer M, Fritz E, Ludwig H. Quality of life in chronic anemia of cancer during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. Cancer. 1994; 73: 25352542.
  • 54
    Gabrilove JL, Cleeland C, Livingston RB, Sarokhan B, Winer E, Einhorn L. Clinical evaluation of once-weekly dosing of epoetin alfa in chemotherapy patients: improvements in hemoglobin and quality of life are similar to three-times-weekly dosing. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 28752882.
  • 55
    Goodnough LT, Brecher ME, Kanter MH, AuBuchon JP. Transfusion medicine. Part 1: blood transfusion. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 438447.
  • 56
    Mercadante S, Gebbia V, Marrazzo A, Filosto S. Anaemia in cancer: pathophysiology and treatment. Cancer Treat Rev. 2000; 26: 303311.
  • 57
    Vamvakas E, Moore SB. Perioperative blood transfusion and colorectal cancer recurrence: a qualitative statistical overview and meta-analysis. Transfusion. 1993; 33: 754765.
  • 58
    Edna TH, Bjerkeset T. Perioperative blood transfusions reduce long-term survival following surgery for colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998; 4: 451459.
  • 59
    Dresner SM, Lamb PJ, Shenfine J, Hayes N, Griffin SM. Prognostic significance of peri-operative blood transfusion following radical resection for oesophageal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2000; 26: 492497.
  • 60
    Busch ORC, Hop WCJ, Hoynck van Papendrecht MAW, Marquet RL, Jeekel J. Blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 13721376.
  • 61
    Ness PM, Walsh PC, Zahurak M. Prostate cancer recurrence in radical surgery patients receiving autologous or homologous blood. Transfusion. 1992; 32: 31.
  • 62
    Erslev AJ. Erythropoietin and anemia of cancer. Eur J Haematol. 2000; 64: 353358.
  • 63
    Lavey RS. Clinical trial experience using erythropoietin during radiation therapy. Strahlenther Onkol. 1998; 174( Suppl 4): 2430.
  • 64
    Abels R. Erythropoietin for anaemia in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A( Suppl 2): S2S8.
  • 65
    Thatcher N, De Campos ES, Bell DR, et al. Epoetin alpha prevents anaemia and reduces transfusion requirements in patients undergoing primarily platinum-based chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999; 80: 396402.
  • 66
    Sheffield RE, Sullivan SD, Saltiel E, Nishimura L. Cost comparison of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in cancer chemotherapy-induced anemia. Ann Pharmacother. 1997; 31: 1522.
  • 67
    Cremieux PY, Barrett B, Anderson K, Slavin MB. Cost of outpatient blood transfusion in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 27552761.
  • 68
    Lawless G, Wilson-Royalty M, Meyers J. Epoetin alfa practice pattern usage in community practice sites [abstract 5446]. Blood. 2000; 96: 390b.
  • 69
    Egrie JC, Grant JR, Gillies DK, Aoki KH, Strickland TW. The role of carbohydrate on the biological activity of erythropoietin. Glycoconj J. 1993; 10: 263.
  • 70
    Varki A. Biological roles of oligosaccharides: all of the theories are correct. Glycobiology. 1993; 3: 97130.
  • 71
    Egrie JC, Dwyer E, Lykos M, Hitz A, Browne JK. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) has a longer serum half-life and greater in vivo biological activity than recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) [abstract 243]. Blood 1997; 90: 56a.
  • 72
    Glaspy J, Colowick AB, Heatherington A. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) exhibits a prolonged serum half-life in oncology patients [abstract 210]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2000; 19: 54a.
  • 73
    Macdougall IC. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein. Semin Nephrol. 2000; 20: 375381.
  • 74
    Macdougall IC, Gray SJ, Elston O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein compared with epoetin alfa in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10: 23922395.
  • 75
    Vanrenterghem Y, Barany P, Mann J. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) maintains hemoglobin in ESRD patients when administered once weekly or once every other week [abstract A1365]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10: 270A.
  • 76
    Smith RE Jr., Jaiyesimi IA, Meza LA, et al. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) for the treatment of anaemia of chronic disease associated with cancer. Br J Cancer. 2001; 84( Suppl 1): 2430.
  • 77
    Kotasek D, Berg R, Poulsen E, Colowick A. Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, phase I/II dose finding study of ARANESP™ administered once every three weeks in solid tumor patients [abstract 1268]. Blood. 2000; 96: 294a.
  • 78
    Heatherington AC, Schuller J, Mercer AJ. Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) in cancer patients: preliminary report. Br J Cancer. 2001; 84( Suppl 1): 1116.
  • 79
    Hedenus M, Hansen S, Dewey C, Watson D, Colowick A, Osterborg A. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, phase II, dose-finding study of NESP in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies [abstract 1569]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2001; 20: 393a.
  • 80
    Glaspy J, Jadeja J, Justice G, et al. Randomized, active-controlled, phase 1/2, dose-comparison study of NESP administered weekly or every 2 weeks in patients with solid tumors [abstract 1315]. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 353.
  • 81
    Pirker R, Vansteenkiste J, Gateley J, Yates P, Colowick A, Musil J. A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) in patients undergoing platinum-treatment for lung cancer [abstract 981]. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 264.
  • 82
    Smith RE Jr., Tchekmedyian NS, Chan D, et al. Open-label, phase I/II dose escalation study of NESP in patients with chronic anemia of cancer [abstract 1320]. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 355.