• 1
    Parker SL, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. Cancer statistics, 1996. CA. 1996; 46: 527.
  • 2
    Hoskins WJ, Perez CA, Young RC. Principles and practice of gynecologic oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000: 10051007.
  • 3
    Petterson F. Annual report on the results of treatment in gynecologic cancer. Stockholm: FIGO, 1988.
  • 4
    Bur ME, Perlman C, Edelmann L, Fey E, Rose PG. p53 expression in neoplasms of the uterine corpus. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992; 98: 8187.
  • 5
    Susini T, Baldi F, Howard CM, et al. Expression of the retinoblastoma-related gene Rb2/p130 correlates with clinical outcome in endometrial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 10851093.
  • 6
    Fiumicino S, Ercoli A, Ferrandina G, et al. Microsatellite instability is an independent indicator of recurrence in sporadic stage I-II endometrial adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 10081014.
  • 7
    Risinger JI, Berchuck A, Kohler MF, Watson P, Lynch HT, Boyd J. Genetic instability of microsatellites in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1993; 53: 51005103.
  • 8
    Williams CS, DuBois RN. Prostaglandins endoperoxide synthase: why two isoforms? Am J Physiol. 1996; 270: G393G400.
  • 9
    Tsujii M, DuBois RN. Alterations in cellular adhesion and apoptosis in epithelial cells overexpressing prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2. Cell. 1995; 83: 493501.
  • 10
    Tsujii M, Kawano S, DuBois RN. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human colon cancer cells increases metastatic potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997; 94: 33363340.
  • 11
    Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Sawaoka H, Hori M, DuBois RN. Cyclooxygenase-2 regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells [published erratum appears in Cell 1998; 94(2): following 271]. Cell. 1998; 93: 705716.
  • 12
    Huang M, Stolina M, Sharma S, et al. Non small cell lung cancer cyclooxygenase-2-dependent regulation of cytokine balance in lymphocytes and macrophages: up-regulation of interleukin 10 and down-regulation of interleukin 12 production. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 12081216.
  • 13
    Madaan S, Abel PD, Chaudhari KS, et al. Cytoplasmic induction and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer: implications for prevention and treatment. Br J Urol. 2000; 86: 736741.
  • 14
    Tomozawa S, Tsuno NH, Sunamio E, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression correlates with tumor recurrence, especially haematogenous metastasis of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2000; 83: 324328.
  • 15
    Ohno R, Yoshinaga K, Fujita T, et al. Depth of invasion parallels increased cyclooxygenase 2 levels in patients with gastric carcinoma. Cancer. 2001; 91: 18761881.
  • 16
    Ferrandina G, Lauriola L, Distefano MG, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival in cervical cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. (in press).
  • 17
    Karnes WE Jr., Shattuck-Brandt R, Burgart LJ, et al. Reduced COX-2 protein in colorectal cancer with defective mismatch repair. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 54735477.
  • 18
    Yanamoto H, Itoh F, Fukushima H, Hinoda Y, Imai K. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein is less frequent in gastric cancers with microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 1999; 84: 400403.
  • 19
    Comerci JT, Sloan C, Edwards RP, Makhia SK, Krohn M, Haten F. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, and carcinoma. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee, March 3–7, 2000, Abstract 108.
  • 20
    Tong BJ, Tan J, Tajeda L, et al. Heightened expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Neoplasia. 2000; 2: 483490.
  • 21
    Kaplan E, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457481.
  • 22
    Mantel N. Evaluation of survival data and two new rank order statistics arising in its consideration. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1966; 50: 163170.
  • 23
    Altman DG, Lausen B, Sauerbrei W, Schumacher M. Dangers of using “optimal” cut points in the evaluation of prognostic factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994; 86: 829835.
  • 24
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc. 1972; 34: 197220.
  • 25
    Einstein MH, Cao QJ, Weiss H, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in endometrial cancer in vivo. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee, March 3–7, 2000, Abstract 109.
  • 26
    Wilson KT, Fu S, Ramanujam KS, Meltzer SJ. Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in Barrett's esophagus and associated adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 29292934.
  • 27
    Chapple KS, Cartwright EJ, Hawcroft G, et al. Localization of cyclooxygenase-2 in human sporadic colorectal adenomas. Am J Pathol. 2000; 156: 545553.
  • 28
    Saukkonen K, Nieminen O, van Rees B, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in dysplasia of the stomach and in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2001; 7: 19231931.
  • 29
    Kulkarni S, Rader JS, Zhang F, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 is overexpressed in human cervical cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001; 7: 429434.
  • 30
    Sheng H, Shao J, DuBois RN. K-ras-mediated increase in cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA stability involves activation of the protein kinase B1. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 26702675.
  • 31
    Scambia G, Catozzi L, Benedetti-Panici P, et al. Expression of ras p21 oncoprotein in normal and neoplastic human endometrium. Gynecol Oncol. 1993; 50: 339346.
  • 32
    Ryu HS, Chang KH, Yang HW, Kim MS, Kwan HC, Oh KS. High cyclooxygenase-2 expression in stage IB cervical cancer with lymph node metastasis or parametrial invasion. Gynecol Oncol. 2000; 76: 320325.
  • 33
    Sheehan KM, Sheahan K, O'Donoghue DP, et al. The relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and colorectal cancer. J Am Med Assoc. 1999; 282: 12541257.
  • 34
    Murata H, Kawano S, Tsujii S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression enhances lymphatic invasion and metastasis in human gastric carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 451455.
    Direct Link:
  • 35
    Gaffney DK, Holden J, Davies M, Zempolich K, Murphy KJ, Dodson M. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with diminished survival in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001; 49: 12131217.
  • 36
    Myeroff LL, Parsons R, Kim SJ, et al. A transforming growth factor beta receptor type II gene mutation common in colon and gastric but rare in endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability. Cancer Res. 1995; 55: 55455547.
  • 37
    Gurin CC, Federici MG, Kang L, Boyd J. Causes and consequences of microsatellite instability in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1999; 59: 462466.
  • 38
    Parsons R, Myeroff L, Liu B, et al. Microsatellite instability and mutations of the transforming growth factor β type II receptor gene in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1995; 55: 55485550.
  • 39
    Steinbach G, Lynch PM, Phillips RK, et al. The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 19461952.