• 1
    Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin. 2001; 51: 1536.
  • 2
    deVere White RW, Stapp E. Predicting prognosis in patients with superficial bladder cancer. Oncology. 1998; 12: 17171723.
  • 3
    Holmäng S, Hedelin H, Anderström C, Johansson SL. The relationship among multiple recurrences, progression and prognosis of patients with Stage Ta and T1 transitional cell cancer of the bladder followed for at least 20 years. J Urol. 1995; 153: 18231827.
  • 4
    Stein JP, Grossfeld D, Ginsberg DA, et al. Prognostic markers in bladder cancer: a contemporary review of the literature. J Urol. 1998; 160: 645659.
  • 5
    Fleming ID, Cooper JS, Henson DE, Hutter RVP, Kenndy BJ, Murphy GP. American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual, 5th ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott-Raven, 1997.
  • 6
    Mostofi FK, Sobin LH, Torloni H. Histological typing of urinary bladder tumors. International Histological Classification of Tumors, no. 10. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1973.
  • 7
    Vollmer RT, Humphrey PA, Swanson PE, Wick MR, Hudson MA. Invasion of the bladder by transitional cell carcinoma. Cancer. 1998; 82: 715723.
  • 8
    Wei LJ, Lin DY, Weissfeld L. Regression analysis of multivariate incomplete failure time data by modeling marginal distributions. J Amer Stat Assoc. 1989; 84: 10651073.
  • 9
    SAS/STAT User's guide, version 6, 4th ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1990.
  • 10
    Waples MJ, Messing EM. The management of Stage T1, Grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In: LyttonB, editor. Advances in urology, vol 5. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1992: 3359.
  • 11
    Klan R, Loy N, Huland H. Residual tumor discovered in routine second transurethral resection in patients with Stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol. 1991; 146: 316318.
  • 12
    Fontana D, Bellina M., Gubetta L, et al. Monoclonal antibody Ki-67 in the study of the proliferative activity of bladder carcinoma. J urol. 1992; 148: 11491151.
  • 13
    Cohen MC, Waldman FM, Carroll PR, Kerschmann R, Chew K, Mayall BH. Comparison of five histopathologic methods to assess cellular proliferation in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Hum Pathol. 1993; 24: 772778.
  • 14
    Tsujihashi H, Nakanishi A, Matsuda H, Uejima S, Kurita T. Cell proliferation of human bladder tumors determined by BrdUrd and Ki-67 immunostaining. J Urol. 1991; 145: 846849.
  • 15
    Mulder AH, Van Hootegem JC, Sylvester R, et al. Prognostic factors in bladder carcinoma: histologic parameters and expression of a cell cycle-related nuclear antigen (Ki-67). J Pathol. 1992; 166: 3743.
  • 16
    Bush C, Price P, Norten J, et al. Proliferation in human bladder carcinoma measured by Ki-67 antibody labelling: its potential clinical importance. Br J Cancer. 1991; 64: 357360.
  • 17
    Raitanen MP, Tammela TLJ, Kallioinen M, Esola J. p53 accumulation, deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy and progression of bladder cancer. J Urol. 1997; 157: 12501253.
  • 18
    Gardiner R, Walsh M, Rahman A, Samaratunga G, Seymour G, Lavin M. Immunohistological expression of p53 in primary pT1 transitional cell bladder cancer in relation to tumor progression. Br J Urol. 1994; 73: 526532.
  • 19
    Shiina H, Igawa M, Nagami H, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 protein, and nm23 protein, and nuclear DNA content in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cancer. 1996; 78: 17621774.
  • 20
    Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Harris CC. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science. 1991; 253: 4953.
  • 21
    Sato K, Moriyama M, Mori S, et al. An immunohistologic evaluation of c-erb B-2 gene product in patients with urinary bladder carcinoma. Cancer. 1992; 70: 24932498.
  • 22
    Moriyama M, Akiyama T, Yamamoto T, et al. Expression of c-erb B-2 gene product in urinary bladder cancer. J Urol. 1991; 145: 423427.
  • 23
    Lipponen P. Expression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in transitional cell bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A: 749753.
  • 24
    Mellon JK, Lunec J, Wright C, Horne CHW, Kelly P, Neal DE. c-erbB-2 in bladder cancer: molecular biology, correlation with epidermal growth factor receptors and prognostic value. J Urol. 1996; 155: 321326.
  • 25
    Lipponen P, Eskelinen M. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer as related to established prognostic factors, oncoprotein (c-erb B-2, p53) expression and long term prognosis. Br J Cancer. 1994; 69: 11201125.
  • 26
    Ye D, Li H, Qian S, et al. bcl-2 bax expression and p53 gene status in human bladder cancer: relationship to early recurrence with intravesical chemotherapy after resection. J Urol. 1998; 160: 20252028.
  • 27
    Plastiras D, Moutzouris G, Barbatis C, Presvelos V, Petrakos M, Theodorou C. Can p53 nuclear over-expression, bcl-2 accumulation and PCNA status be of prognostic significance in high-risk superficial and invasive bladder tumors? Eur J Surg Oncol. 1999; 25: 6165.
  • 28
    Messing EM. Clinical implications of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human transitional cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1990; 50: 25302537.
  • 29
    Neal DE, Sharples L, Smith K, Frennelly J, Hall RR, Harris AL. The epidermal growth factor receptor and the prognosis of bladder cancer. Cancer. 1990; 65: 16191625.
  • 30
    Sauter G, Haley J, Chew K, et al. Epidermal-growth-factor-receptor expression is associated with rapid tumor proliferation in bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 1994; 57: 508514.
  • 31
    Samodai L, Kiss L, Kolozsy Z. The efficacy of intravesical BCG in the treatment of patients with high risk superficial bladder cancer. Int Urol Nephrol. 1991; 23: 559567.
  • 32
    Cookson MS, Sarosdy MF. Management of Stage T1 superficial bladder cancer with intravesical BCG therapy. J Urol. 1992; 148: 797801.
  • 33
    Herr HW, Wartinger DD, Fair WR, Oettgen HF. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a 10-year follow-up. J Urol. 1992; 147: 10201023.
  • 34
    Pansadoro V, Emiliozi P, Defidio L, et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in the treatment of Stage 1 Grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: long-term results. J Urol. 1995; 154: 20542058.
  • 35
    Brake M, Loertzer H, Horsch R, Keller H. Long-term results of intravesical BCG therapy for Stage T1 superficial bladder cancer. Urology. 2000; 55: 673678.
  • 36
    Heney NM, Ahmed S, Flanagan MJ. Superficial bladder cancer: progression and recurrence. J Urol. 1983; 130: 10831086.
  • 37
    Herr HW. Natural history of superficial bladder tumors: 10-20 year follow-up of treated patients. World J Urol. 1997; 15: 8488.