• 1
    Albino AP, Reed JA, McNutt NS. Molecular biology of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In: De VitaVTJr., HellmanS, RosembergSA, editors. Cancer. Principles and practice of oncology. New York: Lippincott-Raven, 1997: 1935.
  • 2
    Hanahan D, Folkmann J. Patterns and emerging mechanism of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell. 1996; 86: 353364.
  • 3
    Folkman J. Clinical applications of research on angiogenesis. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 1757.
  • 4
    Barnhill RL, Fandrey K, Levy MA, Mihm MC Jr., Hyman B. Angiogenesis and tumor progression of melanoma. Quantification of vascularity in melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Lab Invest. 1992; 67: 331337.
  • 5
    Graham CH, Rivers J, Kerbel RS, Stankiewicz KS, White WL. Extent of vascularization as a prognostic indicator in thin (< 0.76 mm) malignant melanomas. Am J Pathol. 1994; 145: 510514.
  • 6
    Reed JA, McNutt NS, Albino AP. Differential expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in melanocytic lesions demonstrated by in situ hybridization: implications for tumor progress. Am J Pathol. 1994; 144: 329336.
  • 7
    Khare VK, Albino AP, Reed JA. The neuropeptide/mast cell secretagogue substance P is expressed in cutaneous melanocytic lesions. J Cutaneous Pathol. 1998; 25: 210.
  • 8
    Neufeld G, Cohen T, Gengrinovitch S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. FASEB J. 1999; 13: 922.
  • 9
    Dvorak HF, Brown LF, Detmar M, Dvorak A. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor, microvascular hyperpermeability, and angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 1995; 146: 10291039.
  • 10
    Ferrara N, Houk K, Jakeman L, Leung DW. Molecular and biological properties of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of proteins. Endocrine Rev. 1992; 13: 1832.
  • 11
    Conn G, Bayne ML, Soderman DD, et al. Amino acid and cDNA sequences of a vascular endothelial cell mitogen that is homologous to platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 26282632.
  • 12
    Unemori EN, Ferrara N, Bauer EA, Amento EP. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces interstitial collagenase expression in human endothelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 1992; 153: 557562.
  • 13
    Pepper MS, Ferrara N, Orci L, Montesano R. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in microvascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991; 181: 902906.
  • 14
    Matrisian LM. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodelling. Trends Genet. 1990; 6: 121125.
  • 15
    Fridman R, Toth M, Pena D, Mobashery S. Activation of progelatinase B (MMP-9) by gelatinase A (MMP-2). Cancer Res. 1995; 55: 25482555.
  • 16
    Stetler-Stevenson W, Liotta LA, Kleiner D. Extracellular matrix. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis. FASEB J. 1993; 7: 14341441.
  • 17
    Testa JE, Quigley JP. The role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in aggressive tumor cell behaviour. Cancer Metast Rev. 1990; 9: 353367.
  • 18
    Liotta LA, Rao CN, Wewer UM. Biochemical interactions of tumor cells with the basement membrane. Annu Rev Biochem. 1986; 55: 10371057.
  • 19
    Liotta LA, Tryggvason K, Garbisa S, Hart I, Foltz CH, Shafie S. Metastatic potential correlates with enzymatic degradation of basement membrane collagen. Nature. 1980; 284: 6768.
  • 20
    Curran S, Murray GI. Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis. J Pathol. 1999; 189: 300308.
  • 21
    Cordell JL, Falini B, Erber WN. Immunoenzymatic labelling of monoclonal antibodies using immune complexes of alkaline phosphatase and monoclonal anti-alkaline phosphatase. J Histochem Cytochem. 1984; 32: 219229.
  • 22
    Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor and the regulation of angiogenesis. Rec Progr Hormone Res. 2000; 55: 1535.
  • 23
    Weistat-Slatow DL, Zabrenetzky VS, Van Houtte K, Frazier WA, Roberts DD, Steeg PS. Transfection of thrombospondin 1 complementary DNA into a human breast carcinoma cell line reduces primary tumor growth, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 1994; 54: 65046511.
  • 24
    Streit M, Riccardi L, Velasco P, et al. Thrombospondin 2: a potent endogenous inhibitor of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999; 96: 1488814893.
  • 25
    Vincenti V, Cassano C, Rocchi M, Persico G. Assignment of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene to human chromosome 6p21.3. Circulation. 1996; 93: 14931495.
  • 26
    Bayer-Garner IB, Hough AJ, Smoller BR. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in malignant melanoma: prognostic versus diagnostic usefulness. Mod Pathol. 1999; 12: 770774.
  • 27
    Salven P, Heikkla P, Joensuu H. Enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in metastatic melanoma. Br J Cancer. 1997; 76: 930934.
  • 28
    Gately S. The contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 to tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Metast Rev. 2000; 19: 1927.
  • 29
    Xiong S, Grijalva R, Zhang L, et al. Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer by the heregulin-beta 1 activated p38 signalling pathway enhance endothelial cell migration. Cancer Res. 2001; 15: 17271732.
  • 30
    Bermont L, Lamielle F, Lorchel F, et al. Insulin up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor and stabilizers its messengers in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 363368.
  • 31
    Mueller MD, Vigne JL, Minchenko A, Lebovic DI, Leitman DC, Taylor RN. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription by estrogen receptors α and β. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 1097210977.
  • 32
    Hyder SM, Huang JC, Nawaz Z, Boettger-Tong H, Makela S, Chiappetti GM. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by estrogens and progestins. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108 S5: 785–790.
  • 33
    Maity A, Pore N, Lee J, Solomon D, O'Rourke DM. Epidermal growth factor receptor transcriptionally up-regulate endothelial growth factor expression in human glioblastoma cell pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase and distinct. induced by hypoxia. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 58795886.
  • 34
    Danielsen T, Rofstad EK. VEGF, bFGF and EGF in the angiogenesis of human melanoma xenograft. Int J Cancer. 1998; 76: 836841.
  • 35
    Claffey KP, Abrams K, Shih SC, Brown LF, Mullen A, Keough M. Fibroblast growth factor 2 activation of stromal cell vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis. Lab Invest. 2001; 81: 6175.
  • 36
    Redondo P, Bandres E, Solano T, Okroujnov I, Garcia-Foncillas J. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and melanoma. N-acetylcysteine downregulates VEGF production in vitro. Cytokine. 2000; 12: 374378.
  • 37
    Grugel S, Finkenzeller G, Weindel K, Barleon B, Marme D. Both v-Ha-ras and v-raf stimulate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor in NIH 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 2591525919.
  • 38
    Kieser A, Weich HA, Brandner G, Marme D, Kolch W. Mutant p53 potentiates protein kinase C induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Oncogene. 1994; 9: 963969.
  • 39
    Claffey KP, Brown LF, del Aguila LF,et al. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by melanoma cells increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and experimental metastasis. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 172181.
  • 40
    Rofstad EK, Danielsen T. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in human melanoma. Br J Cancer. 1998; 77: 897902.
  • 41
    Li J, Brown LF, Hibberd MG, Grossman JD, Morgan JP, Simons M. VEGF, flk-1, and flt-1 expression in a rat myocardial infarction model of angiogenesis. Am J Physiol (Heart Circ Physiol). 1996; 270: H1803H1811.
  • 42
    Graeven U, Fiedler W, Karpinski S, et al. Melanoma-associated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors FLT-1 and KDR. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1999; 125: 621629.
  • 43
    Cornelius LA, Nehring LC, Roby JD, Parks WC, Welgus HG. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells produce matrix metalloproteinases in response to angiogenic factors and migration. J Invest Dermatol. 1995; 105: 170176.
  • 44
    Qin H, Moellinger JD, Wells A, Windsor LJ, Sun Y, Benveniste EN. Transcriptional regulation of matrix metalloproteinse-2 expression in human astroglioma cells by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 1998; 161: 66646673.
  • 45
    Durko M, Navab R, Shibata HR, Brodt P. Suppression of basement membrane Type IV collagen degradation and cell invasion in human melanoma cells expressing an antisense RNA for MMP-1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997; 1356: 271280.
  • 46
    Huijzer JC, Uhlenkott CE, Meadows GG. Differences in expression of metalloproteinases and plasminogen activators in murine melanocytes and B16 melanoma variants. Lack of association with in vitro invasion. Int J Cancer. 1995; 63: 9299.
  • 47
    Montgomery AM, Mueller BM, Reisfeld RA, Taylor SM, DeClerk YA. Effect of tissue inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression on the growth and spontaneous metastasis of a human melanoma cell line. Cancer Res. 1994; 54: 54675473.
  • 48
    Väisänen A, Tuominen H, Kallioinen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T. Matrix-metalloproteinase 2 (72 kD Type IV collagenase) expression occurs in the early stage of human melanocytic tumor progression and may have prognostic value. J Pathol. 1996; 180: 283289.
  • 49
    Van den Oord JJ, Paemen L, Opdenakker G, de-Wolf-Paemen C. Expression of gelatinase B and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIM in benign and malignant pigment cell lesions of the skin. Am J Pathol. 1997; 151: 665670.
  • 50
    Walker RA, Wooley DE. Immunolocalisation studies of matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, and -3 in human melanoma. Virchows Arch. 1999; 435: 574579.
  • 51
    Schaumburg-Lever G, Lever I, Fehrenbacher B, et al. Melanocytes in nevi and melanomas synthesize basement membrane and basement membrane-like material. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study including immunoelectron microscopy. J Cutaneous Pathol. 2000; 27: 6775.
  • 52
    Birkedal-Hansen H, Moore WGI, Bodden MK, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases. A review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1993; 4: 197250.
  • 53
    MacDougall JR, Bani MR, Lin Y, Muschel RJ, Kerbel RS. Proteolytic switching: opposite patterns of regulation of gelatinase B and its inhibitor TIMP-1 during human melanoma progression and consequences of gelatinase B expression. Br J Cancer. 1999; 80: 504512.
  • 54
    Pyke C, Ralfkiaer E, Huhtala P, Hurskainen T, Dano K, Tryggvason K. Localization of messenger RNA for M 72000 and 92000 Type IV collagenases in human skin cancers by in situ hybridization. Cancer Res. 1992; 52: 13361341.
  • 55
    Rao JS, Yamamoto M, Mohaman S, et al. Expression and localization of 92 kDa Type IV collagenase gelatinase B (MMP-9) in human gliomas. Clin Exp Metast. 1996; 14: 1218.
  • 56
    Ueda Y, Imai K, Tsuchiya H, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B) is expressed in multinucleated giant cells of human giant cell tumor of bone and is associated with vascular invasion. Am J Pathol. 1996; 148: 611622.