SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Okuda K. Early recognition of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 1986; 6: 729738.
  • 2
    Sugiura N, Takara K, Ohto M, Okuda K, Hirooka N. Treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma by percutaneous injection of ethanol into tumor with real-time ultrasound monitoring [in Japanese]. Acta Hepatol Jpn. 1983; 24: 920.
  • 3
    Livraghi T, Festi D, Monti F, Salmi A, Vettori C. US-guided percutaneous alcohol injection of small hepatic and abdominal tumors. Radiology. 1986; 161: 309312.
  • 4
    Okada S. Local ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 1999; 19: 323328.
  • 5
    Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. Classification of primary liver cancer. Tokyo: Kanehara & Co, 1997.
  • 6
    Kanai T, Hirohashi S, Upton MP, et al. Pathology of small hepatocellular carcinoma. A proposal for a new gross classification. Cancer. 1987; 60: 810819.
  • 7
    Castells A, Bruix J, Bru C, et al. Treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: a cohort study comparing surgical resection and percutaneous ethanol injection. Hepatology. 1993; 18: 11211126.
  • 8
    Livraghi T, Bolondi L, Buscarini L, et al. No treatment, resection and ethanol injection in hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of survival in 391 patients with cirrhosis. Italian Cooperative HCC Study Group. J Hepatol. 1995; 22: 522526.
  • 9
    Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T, et al. Ultrasonically guided percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 1994; 74: 817825.
  • 10
    Rossi S, Fornari F, Buscarini L. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency electrocauthery for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma. J Intervent Radiol. 1993; 8: 97103.
  • 11
    Francica G, Marone G. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by radiofrequency hyperthermia with a 'cooled-tip needle'. A preliminary clinical experience. Eur J Ultrasound. 1999; 9: 145153.
  • 12
    Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T, et al. Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy. Cancer. 1999; 85: 16941702.
  • 13
    Livraghi T, Goldberg SN, Lazzaroni S, Meloni F, Solbiati L, Gazelle GS. Small hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment with radio-frequency ablation versus ethanol injection. Radiology. 1999; 210: 655661.
  • 14
    Ikeda M, Okada S, Ueno H, Okusaka T, Kuriyama H. Radiofrequency ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative study. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2001; 31: 322326.
  • 15
    Lin DY, Lin SM, Liaw YF. Non-surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997; 12: S319S328.
  • 16
    Utsunomiya T, Matsumata T, Adachi E, Honda H, Sugimachi K. Limitations of current preoperative liver imaging techniques for intrahepatic metastatic nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 1992; 16: 694701.
  • 17
    Jang HJ, Lim JH, Lee SJ, Park CK, Park HS, Do YS. Hepatocellular carcinoma: are combined CT during arterial portography and CT hepatic arteriography in addition to triple-phase helical CT all necessary for preoperative evaluation? Radiology. 2000; 215: 373380.
  • 18
    Mikami S, Kubo S, Hirohashi K, et al. Computed tomography during arteriography and arterial portography in small hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule: a prospective study. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000; 91: 859863.
  • 19
    Yuki K, Hirohashi S, Sakamoto M, Kanai T, Shimosato Y. Growth and spread of hepatocellular carcinoma. A review of 240 consecutive autopsy cases. Cancer. 1990; 66: 21742179.
  • 20
    Kaneko K, Adachi E, Onitshka H, Matsumata T, Masuda K. Histopathological correlation of two-phased dynamic incremental CT in hepatocellular carcinomas using multivariate analysis. Radiat Med. 1994; 12: 1624.
  • 21
    Hui AM, Takayama T, Sano K, et al. Predictive value of gross classification of hepatocellular carcinoma on recurrence and survival after hepatectomy. J Hepatol. 2000; 33: 975979.
  • 22
    Inui T, Mizuguchi Y, Takayasu K, Matsue H. Diagnosis of macroscopic type of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasound [in Japanese]. J Med Ultrasonic. 2000; 27: 4.
  • 23
    Wilson SR, Burns PN, Muradali D, Wilson JA, Lai X. Harmonic hepatic US with microbubble contrast agent: initial experience showing improved characterization of hemangioma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastasis. Radiology. 2000; 215: 153161.
  • 24
    Tanaka S, Ioka T, Oshikawa O, Hamada Y, Yoshioka F. Dynamic sonography of hepatic tumors. AJR. 2001; 177: 799805.
  • 25
    Dill-Macky MJ, Burns PN, Khalili K, Wilson SR. Focal hepatic masses: enhancement patterns with SH U 508A and pulse-inversion US. Radiology. 2002; 222: 95102.
  • 26
    Weg N, Scheer MR, Gabor MP. Liver lesions: improved detection with dual-detector-array CT and routine 2.5-mm thin collimation. Radiology. 1998; 209: 417426.
  • 27
    Hawighorst H, Schoenberg SO, Knopp MV, Essig M, Miltner P, Kaick G. Hepatic lesions: morphologic and functional characterization with multiphase breath-hold 3D gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography-initial results. Radiology. 1999; 210: 8996.
  • 28
    Ikeda K, Saitoh S, Tsubota A, et al. Risk factors for tumor recurrence and prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 1993; 71: 1925.
  • 29
    Kumada T, Nakano S, Takeda I, et al. Patterns of recurrence after initial treatment in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 1997; 25: 8792.
  • 30
    Shimada M, Hasegawa H, Gion T, et al. Risk factors of the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma originating from residual cancer cells after hepatectomy. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999; 46: 24692475.
  • 31
    Ishii H, Okada S, Okusaka T, et al. Needle tract implantation of hepatocellular carcinoma after percutaneous ethanol injection. Cancer. 1998; 82: 16381642.
  • 32
    Fornari F, Filice C, Rapaccini GL, et al. Small (3 cm) hepatic lesions: results of sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy in 385 patients. Digest Dis Sci. 1994; 39: 22672275.
  • 33
    Yu SC, Lau WY, Leung WT, Liew CT, Leung NW, Metreweli C. Percutaneous biopsy of small hepatic lesions using an 18 gauge automated needle. Br J Radiol. 1998; 71: 621624.
  • 34
    Buscarini L, Fornari F, Bolondi L, et al. Ultrasound guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies. J Hepatol. 1990; 11: 344348.
  • 35
    Smith EH. Complications of percutaneous abdominal fine-needle biopsy. Radiology. 1991; 178: 253258.
  • 36
    Fornari F, Civardi G, Cavanna L, et al. Complications of ultrasonically-guided fine-needle abdominal biopsy: results of a multicenter Italian study and review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 949955.
  • 37
    Takamori R, Wong Ll, Dang C, Wong L. Needle-tract implantation from hepatocellular cancer: is needle biopsy of the liver always necessary? Liver Transplant. 2000; 6: 7375.
  • 38
    Huang G, Sheu JC, Yang PM, Lee HS, Wang TH, Chen DS. Ultrasound-guided cutting biopsy for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma-a study based on 420 patients. J Hepatol. 1996; 25: 334338.
  • 39
    Shiina S, Tagawa K, Unuma T, et al. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. A histopathologic study. Cancer. 1991; 68: 15241530.
  • 40
    Dodd GD, Frank MS, Aribandi M, Chopra S, Chintapalli KN. Radiofrequency thermal ablation: computer analysis of the size of the thermal injury created by overlapping ablations. AJR. 2001; 177: 777782.
  • 41
    McGahan JP, Dodd GD. Radiofrequency ablation of the liver: current status. AJR. 2001; 176: 316.
  • 42
    Goldberg SN, Stein MC, Gazelle GS, Sheiman RG, Kruskal JB, Clouse ME. Percutaneous radiofrequency tissue ablation: optimization of pulsed-radiofrequency technique to increase coagulation necrosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1999; 10: 907916.
  • 43
    Gazelle GS, Goldberg SN, Solbiati L, Livraghi T. Tumor ablation with radio-frequency energy. Radiology. 2000; 217: 633646.
  • 44
    Goldberg SN, Gazelle GS, Solbiati L, et al. Ablation of liver tumors using percutaneous RF therapy. AJR. 1998; 170: 10231028.
  • 45
    Tanaka K, Nakamura S, Numata K, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection and transcatheter arterial embolization. Radiology. 1992; 185: 457460.
  • 46
    Lencioni R, Paolicchi A, Moretti M, et al. Combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma: local therapeutic effect and long-term survival rate. Eur Radiol. 1998; 8: 439444.
  • 47
    Allgaier HP, Deibert P, Olschewski M, et al. Survival benefit of patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma treated by a combination of transarterial chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection—a single-center analysis including 132 patients. Int J Cancer. 1998; 79: 601605.
  • 48
    Seki T, Tamai T, Nakagawa T, et al. Combination therapy with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2000; 89: 12451251.
  • 49
    Buscarini L, Buscarini E, Di Stasi M, Quaretti P, Zangrandi A. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation combined with transcatheter arterial embolization in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma. Ultraschall Med. 1999; 20: 4753.
  • 50
    Buscarini L, Buscarini E, DiStasi M, Quaretti P, Zangrandi A. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation combined with transcatheter arterial embolization in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma. Ultraschall Med. 1999; 20: 4753.