• oral carcinoma;
  • cyclin D1 gene (CCND1);
  • fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH);
  • fine-needle aspiration (FNA)



Amplification of chromosome 11q13 is a frequent event in carcinogenesis of the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas including oral carcinoma.


Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using a BAC clone specific for the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1), was performed on specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) from 50 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs.).


The CCND1 numerical aberration was identified in 21 (42.0%) of 50 patients with primary OSCCs. The CCND1 amplification was determined in 16 (32.0%) of these patients. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that all 21 tumors showing the CCND1 numerical aberration overexpressed the CCND1 protein. The CCND1 numerical aberration was associated significantly with histopathologic grading (P = 0.032), the mode of invasion (P = 0.047), the presence of cancer cells at the resection margin (P = 0.033), pathologic lymph nodestatus (P = 0.045), disease recurrence (P = 0.004), and survival (P = 0.004). The disease-free and overall survival period of patients with the CCND1 numerical aberration was significantly shorter than that of patients without the CCND1 numerical aberration (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0019, respectively). Moreover, a multivariate analysis showed that the CCND1 numerical aberration retained an independent prognostic value.


The CCND1 numerical aberration is useful both as a prognostic indicator that is independent of the TNM classification, and an indicator to assist in determination of the appropriate treatment for patients with OSCCs. Analysis of the CCND1 numerical aberration using FISH on FNABs may be a useful and practical method for predicting aggressive tumors, recurrence, and clinical outcome in patients with OSCCs. Cancer 2002;95:2152–9. © 2002 American Cancer Society.

DOI 10.1002/cncr.10929