Osteoporosis is a complication of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate carcinoma. Androgen deprivation therapy, caused by either bilateral orchiectomy or treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, decreases bone mineral density and increases fracture risk. Other factors including diet and lifestyle may contribute to bone loss. There is limited information regarding the best strategy to prevent osteoporosis in men with prostate carcinoma. Lifestyle modification including smoking cessation, moderation of alcohol consumption, and regular weight-bearing exercise should be encouraged. Supplemental calcium and vitamin D are also recommended. Additional treatment may be warranted for men with osteoporosis, fractures, or high rates of bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy. Intravenous pamidronate, a second-generation bisphosphonate, prevents bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy. Zoledronic acid, a more potent third-generation bisphosphonate, not only prevents bone loss but also increases bone mineral density during androgen deprivation therapy. Other bisphosphonates may be effective although they have not been evaluated in this clinical setting. Treatment with estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators may also be effective. Monotherapy with bicalutamide or other antiandrogens may cause less bone loss than androgen deprivation therapy. Cancer 2003;97(3 Suppl):789–95. © 2003 American Cancer Society.