• clinical states;
  • hormone therapy;
  • metastases;
  • prostate carcinoma;
  • tumor biology


The development and progression of a prostate carcinoma from prediagnosis to death can be characterized as a series of clinical states. The states are milestones that can be used to assess prognosis, define therapeutic objectives, and assess outcomes. The antitumor effects of hormone therapies and cytotoxic agents in patients with prostate carcinoma are placed in context along with the bidrectional tumor-host interactions that contribute to the growth and resistance of osseous lesions. Identifying the factors that contribute to the growth of the disease at different points in the illness has lead to novel, systemic approaches. Proving the benefit of these approaches requires a series of unique trials with unique endpoints relevant to the clinical state of the patients and the specific therapy under evaluation. Cancer 2003;97(3 Suppl):758–71. © 2003 American Cancer Society.

DOI 10.1002/cncr.11151