SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Taylor M, Thun M. Cancer statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin. 2001; 51: 1536.
  • 2
    Cortes J, Kantarjian HM. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comprehensive review with emphasis on biology and therapy. Cancer. 1995; 76: 23932417.
  • 3
    Ries LA, Smith MA, Gurney JG, et al. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, 1999.
  • 4
    Groves FD, Linet MS, Devesa SS. Epidemiology of leukemia: overview of patterns of occurrence. In: HendersonES, ListerTA, GreavesMF, editors. Leukemia, 6th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1996: 145159.
  • 5
    Sandler DP. Epidemiology and etiology of leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol. 1990; 2: 39.
  • 6
    Pombo de Oliveira MS, Awad el Seed FE, Foroni L, et al. Lymphoblastic leukaemia in Siamese twins: evidence for identity. Lancet. 1986; 2: 969970.
  • 7
    Schmitt TA, Degos L. [Familial leukemia]. Bull Cancer. 1978; 65: 8388.
  • 8
    Li FP. Epidemiology of cancer in childhood. In: NathanDG, OskiFA, editors. Hematology of infancy and childhood, 4th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993: 1102.
  • 9
    Robison LL, Nesbit ME, Sather HN, et al. Down syndrome and acute leukemia in children: a 10 year retrospective survey from Childrens Cancer Study Group. J Pediatr. 1984; 105: 235242.
  • 10
    Fong C, Brodeur GM. Down's syndrome and leukemia: epidemiology, genetics, cytogenetics, and mechanisms of leukemogenesis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987; 28: 5576.
  • 11
    Chessells JM, Harrison G, Richards SM, et al. Down's syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: clinical features and response to treatment. Arch Dis Child. 2001; 85: 321325.
  • 12
    Taub JW. Relationship of chromosome 21 and acute leukemia in children with Down syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001; 23: 175178.
  • 13
    Mertens AC, Wen W, Davies SM, et al. Congenital abnormalities in children with acute leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Pediatr. 1998; 133: 617623.
  • 14
    Shaw MP, Eden OB, Grace E, Ellis PM. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1992; 9: 8185.
  • 15
    Janik-Moszant A, Bubala H, Stojewska M, Sonta-Jakimczyk D. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Fanconi anemia]. Wiad Lek. 1998; 51(Suppl 4): 285288.
  • 16
    Toledano SR, Lange BJ. Ataxia-telangiectasia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 1980; 45: 16751678.
  • 17
    Ichimura M, Ishimura T, Belsky JL. Incidence of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors belonging to a fixed cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1971: radiation dose, years after exposure, age at exposure, and type of leukemia. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 1978; 19: 262282.
  • 18
    Mukhin VN. [Acute leukemia in adults: morbidity in Donetsk region of Ukraine before and after Chernobyl's accident]. Ter Arkh. 2000; 72: 6062.
  • 19
    Brown WM, Doll R. Mortality form cancer and other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis. Br Med J. 1965; 5474: 13271332.
  • 20
    Stewart A, Kneale GW. Radiation dose effects in relation to obstetric x-rays and childhood cancer. Lancet. 1970; 1: 11851188.
  • 21
    Shore DL, Sandler DP, Davey FR, et al. Acute leukemia and residential proximity to potential sources of environmental pollutants. Arch Environ Health. 1993; 48: 414420.
  • 22
    Lindquist R, Nilsson B, Eklund G, Gahrton G. Acute leukemia in professional drivers exposed to gasoline and diesel. Eur J Haematol. 1991; 47: 98103.
  • 23
    Brownson RC, Novotny TE, Perry MC. Cigarette smoking and adult leukemia: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153: 469475.
  • 24
    Sandler DP. Recent studies in leukemia epidemiology. Curr Opin Oncol. 1995; 7: 1218.
  • 25
    Wen W, Shu XO, Potter JD, et al. Parental medication use and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 2002; 95: 17861794.
  • 26
    Bethwaite P, Cook A, Kennedy J, Pearce N. Acute leukemia in electrical workers: a New Zealand case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2001; 12: 683689.
  • 27
    Greaves MF, Alexander FE. An infectious etiology for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood? Leukemia. 1993; 7: 349360.
  • 28
    Lombardi L, Newcomb EW, Dalla-Favera R. Pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma: expression of an activated c-myc oncogene causes the tumorigenic conversion of EBV-infected B lymphoblasts. Cell. 1987; 49: 161170.
  • 29
    Meltzer AA, Spitz MR, Johnson CC, Culbert SJ. Season-of-birth and acute leukemia of infancy. Chronobiol Int. 1989; 6: 285289.
  • 30
    Timonen TT. A hypothesis concerning deficiency of sunlight, cold temperature, and influenza epidemics associated with the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in northern Finland. Ann Hematol. 1999; 78: 408414.
  • 31
    Pedersen-Bjergaard J. Acute lymphoid leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23) following chemotherapy with cytostatic agents targeting at DNA-topoisomerase II. Leuk Res. 1992; 16: 733735.
  • 32
    Frankel SR, Herzig GP, Bloomfield CD. Acute lymphoid leukemia in adults. In: AbeloffMD, ArmitageJO, LichterAS, NiederhuberJE, editors. Clinical oncology, 1st edition. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995: 19251958.
  • 33
    Jaing TH, Hsueh C, Chiu CH, et al. Cutaneous lymphocytic vasculitis as the presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002; 24: 555557.
  • 34
    Mayo GL, Carter JE, McKinnon SJ. Bilateral optic disk edema and blindness as initial presentation of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 134: 141142.
  • 35
    Cortes J. Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001; 15: 145162.
  • 36
    Ye CC, Echeverri C, Anderson JE, et al. T-cell blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia manisfesting as a large mediastinal tumor. Hum Pathol. 2002; 33: 770773.
  • 37
    Attarbaschi A, Mann G, Dworzak M, et al. Mediastinal mass in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: significance and therapy response. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002; 39: 558565.
  • 38
    Gill PS, Meyer PR, Pavlova Z, et al. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. Clinical, morphological, and immunologic findings. J Clin Oncol. 1986; 4: 737743.
  • 39
    Fenaux P, Bourhuis JH, Ribrag V. Burkitt's acute lymphocytic leukemia (L3 ALL) in adults. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001; 15: 3750.
  • 40
    Wegelius R. Preleukemic states in children. Scand J Haematol. 1986; 45: 133139.
  • 41
    Kiraly JF, Brooks JS. Bone marrow necrosis. Am J Med. 1976; 60: 361368.
  • 42
    Shibata K, Watanabe M, Yamaguchi M. Two cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia associated with bone marrow necrosis: a brief review of the literature. Eur J Haematol. 1994; 52: 115116.
  • 43
    Paydas S, Ergin M, Baslamisli F, et al. Bone marrow necrosis: clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases and review of the literature. Am J Hematol. 2002; 70: 300305.
  • 44
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. Proposals for the classification of acute leukemia. French-American-British Cooperative Group. Br J Haematol. 1976; 33: 451458.
  • 45
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. The morphologic classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: concordance among observers and clinical correlations. Br J Haematol. 1981; 47: 553561.
  • 46
    Davey FR, Castella A, Lauenstein K, et al. Prognostic significance of the revised French-American-British classification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Lab Haematol. 1983; 5: 343351.
  • 47
    Ferrari S, Mariano MT, Tagliafico E, et al. Myeloperoxidase gene expression in blast cells with a lymphoid phenotype in cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1988; 72: 873876.
  • 48
    Serrano J, Roman J, Sanchez J, et al. Myeloperoxidase gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Br J Haematol. 1997; 97: 841843.
  • 49
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, et al. World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee Meeting—Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 38353849.
  • 50
    Rothe G, Schmitz G. Consensus protocol for the flow cytometric immunophenotyping of hematopoietic malignancies. Working Group on Flow Cytometry and Image Analysis. Leukemia. 1996; 14: 877895.
  • 51
    Bene MC, Castoldi G, Knapp W, et al. Proposals for the immunological classification of acute leukemias. Leukemia. 1995; 9: 17831786.
  • 52
    Ludwig WD, Raghavachar A, Thiel E. Immunophenotypic classification of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Baillieres Clin Haematol. 1994; 7: 235262.
  • 53
    Pui CH, Evans WE. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 605615.
  • 54
    Vogler LB, Crist WM, Bockman DE, et al. Pre-B-leukemia: a new phenotype of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1978; 298: 872878.
  • 55
    Crist WM, Carroll AJ, Shuster JJ, et al. Poor prognosis of children with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with the t(1;19)(q23;p13). A Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Blood. 1990; 76: 117122.
  • 56
    Crist W, Pullen J, Boyett J, et al. Acute lymphoid leukemia in adolescents: clinical and biological features predict a poor prognosis—a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1988; 6: 3443.
  • 57
    Vasef MA, Brynes RK, Murata-Collins JL, et al. Surface immunoglobulin light chain-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia of FAB L1 or L2 type: a report of 6 cases in adults. Am J Clin Pathol. 1998; 110: 143149.
  • 58
    Lai JL, Fenaux P, Zandecki M, et al. Cytogenetic studies in 30 patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or L3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia with special reference to additional chromosome abnormalities. Ann Genet. 1989; 32: 2632.
  • 59
    Pui CH, Behm FG, Crist WM. Clinical and biological relevance of immunologic marker studies in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1993; 82: 343362.
  • 60
    Lai R, Hirsch-Ginsberg CF, Bueso-Ramos C. Pathologic diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 12091235.
  • 61
    Thalhammer-Scherrer R, Mitterbauer G, Simonitsch I, et al. The immunophenotype or 325 adult acute leukemias: relationship to morphologic and molecular classification and proposal for a minimal screening program highly predictive for lineage discrimination. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002; 117: 380389.
  • 62
    Matutes E, Morilla R, Farahat N, et al. Definition of acute biphenotypic leukemia. Haematologica. 1997; 82: 6466.
  • 63
    Den Boer ML, Kapaun P, Pieters R, et al. Myeloid antigen co-expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: relationship with in vitro drug resistance. Br J Haematol. 1999; 105: 876882.
  • 64
    Bene MC, Bernier M, Casasnovas RO, et al. The reliability and specificity of c-kit for the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemias and undifferentiated leukemias. Blood. 1998; 92: 596599.
  • 65
    EGIL (European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias). The value of c-kit in the diagnosis of biphenotypic acute leukemia [abstract]. Leukemia. 1998; 12: 2038a.
  • 66
    Nakase K, Kenkichi K, Shiku H, et al. Myeloid antigen, CD13, CD14, and/or CD33 expression in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients: diagnostic and prognostic implication. Am J Clin Pathol. 1996; 105: 761768.
  • 67
    Guyotat D, Campos L, Shi ZH, et al. Myeloid surface antigen expression in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 1990; 4: 664666.
  • 68
    Wells SJ, Bray RA, Stempora LI, et al. CD117/CD34 expression in leukemic blasts. Am J Clin Pathol. 1996; 106: 192195.
  • 69
    Khalidi HS, Chang KL, Medeiros LJ, et al. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Survey of immunophenotype, French-American-British classification, frequency of myeloid antigen expression, and karyotype abnormalities in 210 pediatric and adult cases. Hematopathology. 1999; 111: 467476.
  • 70
    Pui CH, Rubnitz JE, Hancock ML, et al. Reappraisal of the clinical and biologic significance of myeloid-associated antigen expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 37683773.
  • 71
    Cascavilla N, Musto P, Melillo L, et al. Is the scoring system an effective clinico-biological tool in myeloid antigen positive adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia? Results of a long-term study. Hematol J. 2002; 3: 251258.
  • 72
    Czuczman MS, Dodge RK, Stewart CC, et al. Value of immunophenotype in intensively treated adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 8364. Blood. 1999; 93: 39313939.
  • 73
    Putti MC, Rondelli R, Cocito MG, et al. Expression of myeloid markers lacks prognostic impact in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Italian experience in AIEOP-ALL 88-91 studies. Blood. 1998; 92: 795801.
  • 74
    Uckun FM, Sather HN, Gaynon PS, et al. Clinical features and treatment outcome of children with myeloid antigen positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report form the Children's Cancer Group. Blood. 1997; 90: 2835.
  • 75
    Preti HA, Huh YO, O'Brien SM, et al. Myeloid markers in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Correlations with patient and disease characteristics and with prognosis. Cancer. 1995; 76: 15641570.
  • 76
    Faderl S, Kantarjian HM, Talpaz M, Estrov Z. Clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1998; 91: 39954019.
  • 77
    Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique. Cytogenetic abnormalities in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: correlations with the hematologic findings and outcome. A collaborative study of the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique. Blood. 1996; 87: 31353142.
  • 78
    Faderl S, Talpaz M, Estrov Z, et al. The biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 164172.
  • 79
    Preti HA, O'Brien S, Giralt S, et al. Philadephia chromosome-positive adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: characteristics, treatment results, and prognosis in 41 patients. Am J Med. 1994; 97: 6065.
  • 80
    Zhou M, Gu L, Yeager AM, et al. Incidence and clinical significance of CDKN2/MTS1/P16ink4A and MTS2/P15ink4B gene deletions in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1997; 14: 141150.
  • 81
    Rubnitz JE, Behm FG, Pui CH, et al. Genetic studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with emphasis on p16, MLL, and ETV6 gene abnormalities: results of St. Jude Total Therapy Study XII. Leukemia. 1997; 11: 12011206.
  • 82
    Heerema NA, Sather HN, Sensel MG, et al. Association of chromosome arm 9p abnormalities with adverse risk in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Blood. 1999; 94: 15371544.
  • 83
    Secker-Walker LM, Prentice HG, Durrant J, et al. Cytogenetics adds independent prognostic information in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on MRC trial UKALL XA. Adult Leukaemia Working Party. Br J Haematol. 1997; 96: 601610.
  • 84
    Faderl S, Kantarjian HM, Manshouri T, et al. The prognostic significance of p16INK4a/p14ARF and p15INK4b deletions in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 1999; 5: 18551861.
  • 85
    Hoshino K, Asou N, Okubo T, et al. The absence of the p15INK4B gene alterations in adult patients with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a favourable prognostic factor. Br J Haematol. 2002; 117: 531540.
  • 86
    Secker-Walker LM. General report on the European Union Concerted Action Workshop on 11q23, London, UK, May 1997. Leukemia. 1998; 12: 776778.
  • 87
    Harrison CJ, Cuneo A, Clark R, et al. Ten novel 11q23 chromosomal partner sites. Leukemia. 1998; 12: 811822.
  • 88
    Heerema NA, Arthur DC, Sather H, et al. Cytogenetic features of infants less than 12 months of age at diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of the 11q23 breakpoint on outcome: a report of the Childrens Cancer Group. Blood. 1994; 83: 22742284.
  • 89
    Carroll AJ, Crist WM, Parmley RT, et al. Pre-B cell leukemia associated with chromosome translocation 1;19. Blood. 1984; 63: 721724.
  • 90
    Hunger SP. Chromosomal translocations involving the E2A gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: clinical features and molecular pathogenesis. Blood. 1996; 87: 12111224.
  • 91
    Crist WM, Carroll AJ, Shuster JJ, et al. Poor prognosis of children with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with the t(1;19)(q23;p13). A Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Blood. 1990; 76: 117122.
  • 92
    Aguiar RC, Sohal J, van Rhee F, et al. TEL-AML1 fusion in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of adults. M.R.C. Adult Leukaemia Working Party. Br J Haematol. 1996; 95: 673677.
  • 93
    Raynaud S, Mauvieux L, Cayuela JM, et al. TEL/AML1 fusion gene is a rare event in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 1996; 10: 15291530.
  • 94
    Romana SP, Mauchauffee M, Le Coniat M, et al. The t(12;21) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia results in TEL-AML1 gene fusion. Blood. 1995; 85: 36623670.
  • 95
    Harbott J, Viehmann S, Borkhardt A, et al. Incidence of TEL/AML1 fusion gene analyzed consecutively in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse. Blood. 1997; 90: 49334937.
  • 96
    Seeger K, Adams HP, Buchwald D, et al. TEL-AML1 fusion transcript in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Study Group. Blood. 1998; 91: 17161722.
  • 97
    Rabbitts TH. Chromosomal translocations in human cancer. Nature. 1994; 372: 143149.
  • 98
    Yeoh EJ, Ross ME, Shurtleff SA, et al. Classification, subtype discovery, and prediction of outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia by gene expression profiling. Cancer Cell. 2002; 1: 133143.
  • 99
    Staudt LM. It's ALL in the diagnosis. Cancer Cell. 2002; 1: 109110.
  • 100
    Ferrando AA, Neuberg DS, Staunton J, et al. Gene expression signatures define novel oncogenic pathways in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2002; 1: 7587.
  • 101
    Golub TR, Slonim DK, Tamayo P, et al. Molecular classification of cancer: class discovery and class prediction by gene expression monitoring. Science. 1999; 286: 531537.
  • 102
    Hoelzer D, Ludwig WD, Eckhard E, et al. Improved outcome in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1996; 87: 495508.
  • 103
    Laport GF, Larson RA. Treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Oncol. 1997; 24: 7082.
  • 104
    Larson RA, Dodge RK, Burns CP, et al. A five-drug remission induction regimen with intensive consolidation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 8811. Blood. 1995; 85: 2025– 2037.
  • 105
    Hoelzer D. Which factors influence the different outcome of therapy in adults and children with ALL? Bone Marrow Transplant. 1989; 4 Suppl 1: 98100.
  • 106
    Goekbuget N, Hoelzer D, Arnold R, et al. Subtypes and treatment outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) < 55 yrs [abstract]. Hematol J. 2001; 1: 694a.
  • 107
    Faderl S, Albitar M. Insights into the biologic and molecular abnormalities in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 12671288.
  • 108
    Hoelzer D, Thiel E, Löffler H, et al. Prognostic factors in a multicenter study for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. Blood. 1994; 71: 123131.
  • 109
    Miller DR, Coccia PF, Bleyer WA, et al. Early response to induction therapy as a predictor of disease-free survival and late recurrence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 1989; 7: 18071815.
  • 110
    Faderl S, Thall PF, Kantarjian HM, Estrov Z. Time to platelet recovery predicts outcome of patients with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who have achieved a complete remission. Br J Haematol. 2002; 117: 869874.
  • 111
    Hoelzer D, Arnold R, Freund M, et al. Characteristics, outcome and risk factors in adult T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [abstract]. Blood. 1999; 94: 2926a.
  • 112
    Ludwig WD, Rieder H, Bartram CR, et al. Immunophenotypic and genotypic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcome of adult pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of German multicenter trials GMALL 03/87 and 04/89. Blood. 1998; 92: 18981909.
  • 113
    Annino L, Vegna ML, Camera A, et al. Treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): long-term follow-up of the GIMEMA ALL 0288 randomized study. Blood. 2002; 99: 863871.
  • 114
    Tafuri A. Multidrug resistance proteins MDR1/P-gp, MRP1, and LRP in adult ALL patients uniformly treated according to the GIMEMA 0496 protocol: poor prognostic impact of MDR1/P-gp [abstract]. Blood. 1999; 94: 1265a.
  • 115
    Gökbuget N, Hoelzer D, Arnold R, et al. Treatment of adult ALL according to protocols of the German Multicenter Study Group for Adult ALL (GMALL). Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 13071325.
  • 116
    Durrant IJ, Richards SM, Prentice HG, et al. The Medical Research Council trials in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 13271352.
  • 117
    Larson RA. Recent clinical trials in acute lymphocytic leukemia by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 13671379.
  • 118
    Kantarjian HM, O'Brien S, Smith TL, et al. Results of treatment with hyper-CVAD, a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 547561.
  • 119
    Schaison G, Sommelet D, Bancillon A, et al. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia French protocol Fralle 83-87. Leukemia. 1992; 6 Suppl 2: 148152.
  • 120
    Hussein KK, Dahlberg S, Head D, et al. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults with intensive induction, consolidation, and maintenance chemotherapy. Blood. 1989; 73: 5763.
  • 121
    GIMEMA Cooperative Group. GIMEMA ALL 0183: a multicentric study on adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Italy. Br J Haematol. 1989; 71: 377386.
  • 122
    Linker C, Damon L, Ries C, Navarro W. Intensified and shortened cyclical chemotherapy for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 24642471.
  • 123
    Durrant IJ, Prentice HG, Richards SM. Intensification of treatment for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of U.K. Medical Research Council randomized trial UKALL XA. Br J Haematol. 1997; 99: 8492.
  • 124
    Todeschini G, Tecchio C, Meneghini V, et al. Estimated 6-year event-free survival of 55% in 60 consecutive adult acute lymphoblatsic leukemia patients treated with an intensive Phase II protocol based on high induction dose of daunorubicin. Leukemia. 1998; 12: 144149.
  • 125
    Stryckmans P, Debusscher L. Chemotherapy of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Baillieres Clin Haematol. 1991; 4: 115130.
  • 126
    Kantarjian HM, O'Brien S, Smith T, et al. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia in the elderly: characteristics and outcome with the vincristine-Adriamycin-dexamethasone (VAD) regimen. Br J Haematol. 1994; 88: 94100.
  • 127
    Kantarjian HM, Walters RS, Keating MJ, et al. Experience with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) chemotherapy in adults with refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 1989; 64: 1622.
  • 128
    Jones B, Freeman AI, Shuster JJ, et al. Lower incidence of meningeal leukemia when prednisone is replaced by dexamethasone in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1991; 19: 269275.
  • 129
    Hurwitz CA, Silverman LB, Schorin MA, et al. Substituting dexamethasone for prednisone complicates remission induction in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 2000; 88: 19641969.
  • 130
    Bostrom BC, Sensel MR, Sather HN, et al. Dexamethasone versus prednisone and daily oral versus weekly intravenous mercaptopurine for patients with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Blood. 2003; 101: 38093817.
  • 131
    Linker CA, Levitt LJ, O'Donnell M, et al. Treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with intensive cyclical chemotherapy: a follow-up report. Blood. 1991; 78: 28142822.
  • 132
    Nagura E. Nation-wide randomized comparative study of doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combination therapy with and without L-asparaginase for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994; 33: 359365.
  • 133
    Gökbuget N, Hoelzer D. Recent approaches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. Rev Clin Exp Hematol. 2002; 6: 114141.
  • 134
    Weiss M, Maslak P, Feldman E, et al. Cytarabine with high dose mitoxantrone induces rapid complete remissions in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without the use of vincristine or prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 24802485.
  • 135
    Ottman OG, Hoelzer D, Gracien E, et al. Concomitant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and induction chemoradiotherapy in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a randomized Phase III trial. Blood. 1995; 86: 444450.
  • 136
    Scherrer R, Bettelheim P, Gaissler K, et al. High efficiency of the German multicenter ALL (GMALL) protocol for treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)—a single institution study. Ann Hematol. 1994; 69: 181188.
  • 137
    Larson RA, Dodge RK, Linker CA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of filgrastim during remission induction and consolidation chemotherapy for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: CALGB study 9111. Blood. 1998; 92: 15561564.
  • 138
    Goekbuget N, Arnold R, Buechner T, et al. Intensification of induction and consolidation improves only subgroups of adult ALL: analysis of 1200 patients in GMALL study 05/93 [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 802a.
  • 139
    Ribera JM, Ortega JJ, Oriol A, et al. Late intensification chemotherapy has not improved the results of intensive chemotherapy in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results of a prospective multicenter randomized trial (PETHEMA ALL-89). Haematologica. 1998; 83: 222230.
  • 140
    Cuttner J, Mick R, Budman DR, et al. Phase III trial of brief intensive treatment of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia comparing daunorubicin and mitoxantrone: a CALGB study. Leukemia. 1991; 5: 425431.
  • 141
    Cassileth PA, Andersen JW, Bennett JM, et al. Adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group experience. Leukemia. 1992; 62: 178181.
  • 142
    Childhood ALL Collaborative Group. Duration and intensity of maintenance chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: overview of 42 trials involving 12 000 randomized children. Lancet. 1996; 347: 17831788.
  • 143
    Mandelli F, Annino L, Rotoli B. The GIMEMA ALL 0183 trial: analysis of 10-year follow-up. Br J Haematol. 1996; 92: 665672.
  • 144
    Cortes J, O'Brien SM, Pierce S, et al. The value of high-dose systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal therapy for central nervous system prophylaxis in different risk groups of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1995; 86: 20912097.
  • 145
    Bleyer WA, Poplack DA. Prophylaxis and treatment of leukemia in the central nervous system and other sanctuaries. Semin Oncol. 1985; 12: 131148.
  • 146
    Evans AE, Gilbert ES, Zandstra R. The increasing incidence of central nervous system leukemia in children. Children's Cancer Study Group A. Cancer. 1970; 26: 404409.
  • 147
    Matrangelo R, Poplack D, Bleyer A, et al. Report and recommendation from the Rome workshop concerning poor-prognosis acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: biologic bases for staging, stratification, and treatment. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1986; 14: 191194.
  • 148
    Mahmoud DH Jr., Rivera GK, Hancock ML, et al. Low leukocyte counts with blast cells in cerebrospinal fluid of children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 314319.
  • 149
    Omura GA, Moffitt S, Vogler WR, et al. Combination chemotherapy of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with randomized central nervous system prophylaxis. Blood. 1980; 55: 199204.
  • 150
    Pavlovsky S, Eppinger-Helft M, Sackmann MF. Factors that influence the appearance of central nervous system leukemia. Blood. 1973; 42: 935938.
  • 151
    Thomas DA, Cortes J, O'Brien S, et al. Hyper-CVAD program in Burkitt's-type adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 24612470.
  • 152
    Kantarjian HM, Walters RS, Smith TL, et al. Identification of risk groups for development of central nervous system leukemia in adults with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1988; 72: 17841789.
  • 153
    Blume K, Forman S, Snyder D, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during first complete remission. Transplantation. 1987; 43: 389392.
  • 154
    Chao N, Formen S, Schmidt G, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia during first complete remission. Blood. 1991; 78: 19231927.
  • 155
    DeWitte T, Awwad B, Boezeman J, et al. Role of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adolescent or adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma in first remission. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1994; 14: 767774.
  • 156
    Martin TG, Gajewski JL. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphocytic leukemia in adults. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001; 15: 97120.
  • 157
    Horowitz M, Messere D, Hoelzer D, et al. Chemotherapy compared with bone marrow transplantation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 115: 1318.
  • 158
    Zhang M, Hoelzer D, Horowitz M, et al. Long-term follow-up of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 123: 428431.
  • 159
    Sebban C, Lepage E, Vernant J, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: a comparative study. J Clin Oncol. 1994; 12: 25802587.
  • 160
    Thiebault A, Vernant JP, Degos L, et al. Adult acute lymphocytic leukemia study testing chemotherapy and autologous and allogeneic transplantation. A follow-up report of the French protocol LALA 87. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 13531366.
  • 161
    Rowe JM, Richards S, Burnett AK, et al. Favorable results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for adults with Philadelphia (Ph)-chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission (CR): results from the International ALL Trial (MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993) [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 481a.
  • 162
    Attal M, Blaise D, Marit G, et al. Consolidative treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective, randomized trial comparing allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation and testing the impact of recombinant interleukin-2 after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1995; 86: 16191628.
  • 163
    Vey N, Blaise D, Stoppa A, et al. Bone marrow transplantation in 63 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1994; 14: 383388.
  • 164
    Kantarjian HM, Walters RS, Keating MJ, et al. Results of the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone regimen in adults with standard- and high-risk acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1990; 8: 9941004.
  • 165
    Powles R, Sirohi B, Treleaven J, et al. The role of posttransplantation maintenance chemotherapy in improving the outcome of autotransplantation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2002; 100: 16411647.
  • 166
    Stock W, Estrov Z. Studies of minimal residual disease in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000; 14: 12891305.
  • 167
    Cavé H, van der Werff ten Bosch J, Suciu S, et al. Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 591598.
  • 168
    Foroni L, Coyle LA, Papaioannou M, et al. Molecular detection of minimal residual disease in adult and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia reveals differences in treatment response. Leukemia. 1997; 11: 17321741.
  • 169
    Brisco MJ, Hughes E, Neoh SH, et al. Relationship between minimal residual disease and outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1996; 87: 52515256.
  • 170
    Mortuza FY, Papaioannou M, Moreira IM, et al. Minimal residual disease tests provide an independent predictor of clinical outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 10941104.
  • 171
    Garcia-Manero G, Thomas DA. Salvage therapy for refractory or relapsed acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001; 15: 163205.
  • 172
    Koller CA, Kantarjian HM, Thomas D, et al. The hyper-CVAD regimen improves outcome in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 1997; 11: 20392044.
  • 173
    Sur P, Fernandes DJ, Kute TE, et al. L-asparaginase-induced modulation of methotrexate polyglutamylation in murine leukemia L5178Y. Cancer Res. 1987; 47: 13131318.
  • 174
    Esterhay RJ Jr., Wiernik PH, Grove WR, et al. Moderate dose methotrexate, vincristine, asparaginase, and dexamethasone for treatment of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1982; 59: 334345.
  • 175
    Aguayo A, Cortes J, Thomas D, et al. Combination therapy with methotrexate, vincristine, polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase, and prednisone in the treatment of patients with refractory or recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 1999; 86: 12031209.
  • 176
    Willemze R, Peters WG, Colly LP. Short-term intensive treatment (VAAP) of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 1988; 41: 489495.
  • 177
    Suki S, Kantarjian H, Gandhi V, et al. Fludarabine and cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of refractory or relapsed acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 1993; 72: 21552160.
  • 178
    Deane M, Koh M, Foroni L, et al. FLAG-idarubicin and allogeneic stem cell transplantation for Ph-positive ALL beyond frist remission. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1998; 22: 11371143.
  • 179
    Advisory Committee of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. Report from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1989; 4: 221228.
  • 180
    Fleming DR, Henslee-Downey PJ, Romond EH, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with T cell-depleted partially matched related donors for advanced acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adults: a comparative matched cohort study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996; 17: 917922.
  • 181
    Herzig RH, Bortin MM, Barrett AJ, et al. Bone-marrow transplantation in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first and second remission. Lancet. 1987; 1: 786789.
  • 182
    Davies SM, Ramsay NK, Weisdorf DJ. Feasibility and timing of unrelated donor identification for patients with ALL. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996; 17: 737740.
  • 183
    Faderl S, Garcia-Manero G, Thomas DA, Kantarjian HM. Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia—current concepts and future perspectives. Rev Clin Exp Hematol. 2002; 6: 142160.
  • 184
    Wetzler M, Dodge RK, Mrozek K, et al. Prospective karyotype analysis in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience. Blood. 1999; 93: 39833993.
  • 185
    Goldstone AH, Prentice HG, Durant J, et al. Allogeneic transplant (related or unrelated donor) is the preferred treatment for adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Results from the International ALL Trial (MRC UKALLXII/ECOG E2993) [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 856a.
  • 186
    Druker BJ, Tamura S, Buchdunger E, et al. Effects of a selective inhibitor of the ABL tyrosine kinase on the growth of BCR-ABL positive cells. Nat Med. 1996; 2: 561566.
  • 187
    Thomas DA, Cortes J, Giles FJ, et al. Combination of hyper-CVAD with imatinib mesylate (STI571) for Philadelphia (Ph)-positive adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or chronic myelogenous leukemia in lymphoid blast phase (CML-LBP) [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 803a.
  • 188
    Ottmann OG, Druker BJ, Sawyers CL, et al. A Phase 2 study of imatinib in patients with relapsed or refractory Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoid leukemias. Blood. 2002; 100: 19651971.
  • 189
    Ottmann OG, Wassmann B, Pfeifer H, et al. Activity of the ABL-tyrosine kinase inhibitor Glivec (STI571) in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PH+ ALL) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 589a.
  • 190
    Patte C, Philip T, Rodary C, et al. Improved survival rate in children with Stage III and Stage IV B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukemia using multi-agent chemotherapy: results of a study of 114 children from the French Pediatric Oncology Society. J Clin Oncol. 1986; 4: 12191226.
  • 191
    Reiter A, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, et al. Favourable outcome of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood: a report of three consecutive studies of the BFM group. Blood. 1992; 80: 24712478.
  • 192
    Murphy SB, Bowman WP, Abromowitch M, et al. Results of treatment of advanced-stage Burkitt's lymphoma and B cell (sIg+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-dose fractionated cyclosphosphamide and coordinated high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine. J Clin Oncol. 1986; 4: 17321739.
  • 193
    Bowman PW, Shuster JJ, Cook B, et al. Improved survival for children with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Stage IV small noncleaved cell lymphoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 12521261.
  • 194
    Soussain C, Patte C, Ostronoff M, et al. Small noncleaved cell lymphoma and leukemia in adults. A retrospective study of 65 adults treated with the LMB pediatric protocols. Blood. 1995; 85: 664674.
  • 195
    Cortes J, Thomas D, Rios A, et al. Hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethusone and highly active antivetroviral therapy for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Borkitt lymphoma/leukemia. Cancer. 2002; 94: 14921499.
  • 196
    Bassan R, Pogliani E, Casula P, et al. Risk-oriented postremission strategies in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prospective confirmation of anthracycline activity in standard-risk class and role of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in high-risk groups. Hematol J. 2001; 2: 117126.
  • 197
    Dekker AW, van't Veer MB, van der Holt B, et al. Postremission treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation (Auto-SCT) or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A Phase II clinical trial (HOVON 18 ALL) [abstract]. Blood. 2001; 98: 859a.
  • 198
    Hallbook H, Simonsson B, Bjorkholm M, et al. High dose ara-C as upfront therapy for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blood. 1999; 94: 297a.
  • 199
    Hoelzer D, Arnold R, Diedrich H, et al. Successful treatment of Burkitt's NHL and other high-grade NHL according to a protocol for mature B-ALL [abstract]. Blood. 2002; 100: 159a.
  • 200
    Todeschini G, Tecchio C, Degani D, et al. Eighty-one percent event-free survival in advanced Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia: no differences in outcome between pediatric and adult patients treated with the same intensive pediatric protocol. Ann Oncol. 1997; 8 Suppl 1: 7781.
  • 201
    Fenaux P, Lai JL, Miaux O, et al. Burkitt cell acute leukaemia (L3 ALL) in adults: a report of 18 cases. Br J Haematol. 1989; 71: 371376.