• 1
    Bodey GP, Buckley M, Sathe YS, Freireich EJ. Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med. 1966; 64: 328340.
  • 2
    Blackwell S, Crawford J. Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in the chemotherapy setting. In: MorstynG, DexterTM, FooteM, editors. Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in clinical practice. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994: 103106.
  • 3
    National Cancer Institute. Common toxicity criteria, version 2.0. Available from URL: [access date January 3, 2003].
  • 4
    Lyman GH, Lyman CH, Dale DC, Crawford J. Risk models for the prediction of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) and its consequences: a systematic review and classification [abstract 5443]. Blood. 2001; 98: 413b.
  • 5
    Wilson-Royalty M, Lawless G, Palmer C, Brown R. Predictors for chemotherapy-related severe or febrile neutropenia: a review of the clinical literature. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2002; 7: 141147.
  • 6
    Lyman GH, Crawford J, Dale DC, Chen H, Agboola O, Lininger L. Clinical prediction models for febrile neutropenia (FN) and relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients receiving adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy [abstract 1571]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2001; 20: 394a.
  • 7
    Intragumtornchai T, Sutheesophon J, Sutcharitchan P, Swasdikul D. A predictive model for life-threatening neutropenia and febrile neutropenia after the first course of CHOP chemotherapy in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000; 37: 351360.
  • 8
    Balducci L. The geriatric cancer patient: equal benefit from equal treatment. Cancer Control. 2001; 8: 125.
  • 9
    Morrison VA, Picozzi V, Scott S, et al. The impact of age on delivered dose intensity and hospitalizations for febrile neutropenia in patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving initial CHOP chemotherapy: a risk factor analysis. Clin Lymphoma. 2001; 2: 4756.
  • 10
    Chrischilles E, Delgado DJ, Stolshek BS, et al. Impact of age and colony-stimulating factor use on hospital length of stay for febrile neutropenia in CHOP-treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Control. 2002; 9: 203211.
  • 11
    Dees EC, O'Reilly S, Goodman SN, et al. A prospective pharmacologic evaluation of age-related toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Cancer Invest. 2000; 18: 521529.
  • 12
    Extermann M, Chen H, Cantor AB, et al. Predictors of tolerance to chemotherapy in older cancer patients: a prospective pilot study. Eur J Cancer. 2002; 38: 14661473.
  • 13
    Balducci L, Extermann M. Management of cancer in the older person: a practical approach. Oncologist. 2000; 5: 224237.
  • 14
    Balducci L, Yates J. General guidelines for the management of older patients with cancer. Oncology (Huntington). 2000; 14: 221227.
  • 15
    Ozer H, Armitage JO, Bennett CL, et al. 2000 Update of recommendations for the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors: evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines. American Society of Clinical Oncology Growth Factors Expert Panel. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 35583585.
  • 16
    Balducci L, Lyman GH. Patients aged ≥ 70 are at high risk for neutropenic infection and should receive hemopoietic growth factors when treated with moderately toxic chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 15831585.
  • 17
    Blay JY, Chauvin F, Le Cesne A,et al. Early lymphopenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy as a risk factor for febrile neutropenia. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 636643.
  • 18
    Silber JH, Fridman M, DiPaola RS, et al. First-cycle blood counts and subsequent neutropenia, dose reduction, or delay in early-stage breast cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 23922400.
  • 19
    Holmes FA, O'Shaughnessy JA, Vukelja S, et al. Blinded, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate single administration pegfilgrastim once per cycle versus daily filgrastim as an adjunct to chemotherapy in patients with high-risk Stage II or Stage III/IV breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 727731.
  • 20
    Green MD, Koelbl H, Baselga J, et al. A randomized double-blind multicenter Phase III study of fixed-dose single-administration pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2003; 14: 2935.
  • 21
    Crawford J. Pegfilgrastim for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenic complications, with dosing once per chemotherapy cycle. Today's Therapeutic Trends. 2002; 20: 393418.
  • 22
    Crawford J, Ozer H, Stoller R, et al. Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 164170.
  • 23
    Trillet-Lenoir V, Green J, Manegold C, et al. Recombinant granulocyte colony stimulating factor reduces the infectious complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A: 319324.
  • 24
    Lyman GH, Kuderer NM, Balducci L. Cost-benefit analysis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the management of elderly cancer patients. Curr Opin Hematol. 2002; 9: 207214.
  • 25
    Dale DC, Crawford J, Lyman G. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and associated complications in randomized clinical trials: an evidence-based review [abstract 1638]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2001; 20: 410a.
  • 26
    Gomez H, Hidalgo M, Casanova L, et al. Risk factors for treatment-related death in elderly patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a multivariate analysis. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 20652069.
  • 27
    Caggiano V, Stolshek BS, Delgado DJ, Carter WB. First and all cycle febrile neutropenia hospitalizations (FNH) and costs in intermediate grade non-Hodgkins lymphoma (IGL) patients on standard-dose CHOP therapy [abstract 1810]. Blood. 2001; 98: 431a.
  • 28
    Meza L, Baselga J, Holmes FA, Liang B, Breddy J. Incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) is directly related to duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) after myelosuppressive chemotherapy [abstract 2840]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002; 21: 255b.
  • 29
    Schimpff S, Satterlee W, Young VM, Serpick A. Empiric therapy with carbenicillin and gentamicin for febrile patients with cancer and granulocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 1971; 284: 10611065.
  • 30
    Schimpff SC. Empiric antibiotic therapy for granulocytopenic cancer patients. Am J Med. 1986; 80: 1320.
  • 31
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, et al. 2002 Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 730751.
  • 32
    Klastersky J. Science and pragmatism in the treatment and prevention of neutropenic infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998; 41( Suppl D): 1324.
  • 33
    Talcott JA, Finberg R, Mayer RJ, Goldman L. The medical course of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. Clinical identification of a low-risk subgroup at presentation. Arch Intern Med. 1988; 148: 25612568.
  • 34
    Rubenstein EB, Rolston K, Benjamin RS, et al. Outpatient treatment of febrile episodes in low-risk neutropenic patients with cancer. Cancer. 1993; 71: 36403646.
  • 35
    Rolston KV. New trends in patient management: risk-based therapy for febrile patients with neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis. 1999; 29: 515521.
  • 36
    Klastersky J, Paesmans M, Rubenstein EB, et al. The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer risk index: a multinational scoring system for identifying low-risk febrile neutropenic cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 30383051.
  • 37
    Kuderer N, Cosler LE, Crawford J, Dale DC, Lyman GH. Cost and mortality associated with febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients [abstract 998]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002; 21: 250a.
  • 38
    Chrischilles E, Link B, Scott S, Delgado DJ, Fridman M. Factors associated with early termination of CHOP, and its association with overall survival among patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) [abstract 1539]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002; 21: 385a.
  • 39
    Gandhi SK, Arguelles L, Boyer JG. Economic impact of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in breast cancer: estimates from two national databases. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 684690.
  • 40
    Cosler LE, Agboola O, Calhoun EA, Lyman GH. An updated risk threshold model for G-CSF prophylaxis use in cancer chemotherapy: incorporation of patient out-of-pocket and indirect costs. Poster presented at the seventh annual meeting of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Arlington, Virginia, May 19–22, 2002.
  • 41
    Lyman GH, Kuderer NM. Filgrastim in patients with neutropenia: potential effects on quality of life. Drugs. 2002; 62( Suppl 1): 6578.
  • 42
    Hartmann LC, Tschetter LK, Habermann TM, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in severe chemotherapy-induced afebrile neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 17761780.
  • 43
    Link BK, Budd GT, Scott S, et al. Delivering adjuvant chemotherapy to women with early-stage breast carcinoma: current patterns of care. Cancer. 2001; 92: 13541367.
  • 44
    Lyman GH, Dale DC, Crawford J. Incidence of low dose intensity in adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy: a nationwide study of community practices. J Clin Oncol. In press.
  • 45
    Epelbaum R, Faraggi D, Ben Arie Y,et al. Survival of diffuse large cell lymphoma. A multivariate analysis including dose intensity variables. Cancer. 1990; 66: 11241129.
  • 46
    Kwak LW, Halpern J, Olshen RA, Horning SJ. Prognostic significance of actual dose intensity in diffuse large-cell lymphoma: results of a tree-structured survival analysis. J Clin Oncol. 1990; 8: 963977.
  • 47
    Lepage E, Gisselbrecht C, Haioun C, et al. Prognostic significance of received relative dose intensity in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: application to LNH-87 protocol. The GELA (Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte). Ann Oncol. 1993; 4: 651656.
  • 48
    Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 901906.
  • 49
    Budman DR, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, et al. Dose and dose intensity as determinants of outcome in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998; 90: 12051211.
  • 50
    Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, et al. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 14311439. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 2226.
  • 51
    Mayers C, Panzarella T, Tannock IF. Analysis of the prognostic effects of inclusion in a clinical trial and of myelosuppression on survival after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2001; 91: 22462257.
  • 52
    Dale DC, Wolff D, Agboola O, Crawford J, Lyman GH. Prospective patient registry for the development of risk models of neutropenic complications including febrile neutropenia (FN) [abstract 5593]. Blood. 2002; 100: 502b.
  • 53
    Calhoun EA, Chang CH, Welshman EE, Cella DF. Development and validation of the FACT-neutropenia [abstract 1791]. Blood. 2001; 98: 427a.
  • 54
    Fortner BV, Stolshek BS, Schwartzberg L, et al. Decline in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is associated with lower quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients receiving docetaxel [abstract 2808]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002; 21: 247b.
  • 55
    Okon TA, Fortner BV, Schwartzberg L, et al. Quality of life (QOL) in patients with grade IV chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) [abstract 2920]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002; 21: 275b.
  • 56
    Glaspy J, Hackett J, Flyer P, Dunford D, Liang B. Febrile neutropenia is associated with an increase in the incidence, duration, and severity of chemotherapy toxicities [abstract 1812]. Blood. 2001; 98: 432a.
  • 57
    Lyman GH, Lyman CG, Sanderson RA, Balducci L. Decision analysis of hematopoietic growth factor use in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993; 85: 488493.
  • 58
    Lyman GH, Kuderer N, Greene J, Balducci L. The economics of febrile neutropenia: implications for the use of colony-stimulating factors. Eur J Cancer. 1998; 34: 18571864.
  • 59
    Lyman GH. A predictive model for neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20( 7 pt 2): 104S–111S.
  • 60
    Sivasubramaniam V, Dale DC, Crawford J, Agboola Y, Lyman G. Impact of outpatient treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) on risk thresholds for G-CSF prophylaxis in cancer chemotherapy (CT) [abstract 1563]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2001; 20: 392a.
  • 61
    Silber JH, Fridman M, Shpilsky A, et al. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor use in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 24352444.
  • 62
    Lyman GH, Kuderer NM, Djulbegovic B. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients receiving dose-intensive cancer chemotherapy: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2002; 112: 406411.
  • 63
    Lyman GH, Crawford J, Dale DC, Wolff DA. Predicting the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer: rationale for prospective risk model development. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, December 11–14, 2002.