• 1
    Howard J, Hankey BF, Greenberg RS, et al. A collaborative study of differences in the survival rates of black patients and white patients with cancer. Cancer. 1992; 69: 23492360.
  • 2
    National Cancer Institute. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2000. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, 2003. Available from URL: [accessed 3 October 2003].
  • 3
    Hankey BF. Urinary bladder. In: MillerBA, RiesLAG, HankeyBF, KosaryCL, EdwardsBK, editors. Cancer statistics review 1973–1989. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, 1992.
  • 4
    Prout GR, Jr. Wesley MN, Greenberg RS,et al. Bladder cancer: race differences in extent of disease at diagnosis. Cancer. 2000; 89: 13491358.
  • 5
    La Vecchia C, Airoldi L. Human bladder cancer: epidemiological, pathological and mechanistic aspects. IARC Sci Publ. 1999: 139157.
  • 6
    Hankey BF, Myers MH. Black/white differences in bladder cancer patient survival. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 6573.
  • 7
    Mayer WJ, McWhorter WP. Black/white differences in non-treatment of bladder cancer patients and implications for survival. Am J Public Health. 1989; 79: 772775.
  • 8
    Beahrs OH, Myers M, Myers M. Manual for staging of cancer, 2nd edition. American Joint Committee on Cancer. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1983.
  • 9
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457481.
  • 10
    Mantel N. Evaluation of survival data and two new rank order statistics arising in its consideration. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1966; 50: 163.
  • 11
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Assoc. 1972; 5: 568573.
  • 12
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Poverty income guidelines: annual revision. Fed Reg. 1986; 51: 51055106.
  • 13
    U.S. Bureau of the Census, editor. 1980 Census of population: alphabetic index of industries and occupation. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980.
  • 14
    Eley JW, Hill HA, Chen VW, et al. Racial differences in survival from breast cancer. Results of the National Cancer Institute Black/White Cancer Survival Study. JAMA. 1994; 272: 947954.
  • 15
    Lynch CF, Platz CE, Jones MP, Gazzaniga JM. Cancer registry problems in classifying invasive bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991; 83: 429433.
  • 16
    Petrovich Z, Baert L, Boyd SD, et al. Management of carcinoma of the bladder. Am J Clin Oncol. 1998; 21: 217222.
  • 17
    Shipley WU, Winter KA, Kaufman DS, et al. Phase III trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation by combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy: initial results of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 89-03. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 35763583.
  • 18
    Malmstrom PU, Busch C, Norlen BJ. Recurrence, progression and survival in bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis of 232 patients with greater than or equal to 5-year follow-up. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1987; 21: 185195.
  • 19
    Fossa SD, Aaronson N, Calais DS, et al. Quality of life in patients with muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer and hormone-resistant prostatic cancer. Eur Urol. 1989; 16: 335339.
  • 20
    Dreicer R, Cooper CS, Williams RD. Management of prostate and bladder cancer in the elderly. Urol Clin North Am. 1996; 23: 8797.
  • 21
    Holmang S, Hedelin H, Anderstrom C, Johansson SL. Long-term follow-up of all patients with muscle invasive (stages T2, T3 and T4) bladder carcinoma in a geographical region. J Urol. 1997; 158: 389392.
  • 22
    Fossa SD, Ous S, Espetveit S, Langmark F. Patterns of primary care and survival in 336 consecutive unselected Norwegian patients with bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1992; 26: 131138.
  • 23
    Heimdal K, Fossa SD. Urologic cancer in elderly patients. Curr Opin Oncol. 1993; 5: 568573.
  • 24
    Shearer RJ, Chilvers CF, Bloom HJ, Bliss JM, Horwich A, Babiker A. Adjuvant chemotherapy in T3 carcinoma of the bladder. A prospective trial: preliminary report. Br J Urol. 1988; 62: 558564.
  • 25
    Smaaland R, Akslen LA, Tonder B, Mehus A, Lote K, Albrektsen G. Radical radiation treatment of invasive and locally advanced bladder carcinoma in elderly patients. Br J Urol. 1991; 67: 6169.