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Keywords:

  • thyroid;
  • carcinoma;
  • insular;
  • poorly differentiated;
  • prognosis

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The term poorly differentiated (PD) carcinoma was proposed 20 years ago to define aggressive, follicular-derived thyroid carcinomas with behavior intermediate between follicular/papillary and anaplastic carcinomas. Among the variable histologic patterns recognized in such tumors, trabecular-insular-solid (TIS) areas usually are predominant. Conversely, some authors pointed out that PD carcinomas are characterized by unequivocal, high-grade histology with atypias, high mitotic counts, and necrosis rather than by a specific growth pattern.

METHODS

The clinicopathologic features of a series of 183 thyroid carcinomas with predominant (n = 165 tumors) or focal (n = 18 tumors) TIS growth patterns were studied by univariate and multivariate overall survival analyses and were compared with clinical outcomes. Subgroups included tumors with predominant oxyphilic features (n = 66 tumors) and (residual) papillary carcinoma features (n = 24 tumors). Control groups of papillary (n = 68 tumors), follicular (n = 71 tumors), and anaplastic (n = 35 tumors) carcinomas also were included for overall survival analysis.

RESULTS

TIS carcinomas had an intermediate behavior between papillary/follicular and anaplastic carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that age > 45 years (P = 0.007), the presence of necrosis (P < 0.0001), and a mitotic count > 3 per 10 high-power fields (P = 0.01) were associated with poor outcome. A simplified scoring system based on statistically significant parameters allowed the identification of three prognostic subgroups (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

PD TIS carcinomas overall followed a more aggressive course compared with differentiated thyroid carcinomas, irrespective of the extent of the TIS component. However, a numeric scoring system applied to specific clinicopathologic parameters further may identify three prognostic categories of patients who have significantly different survival rates at 5 years and 10 years. Cancer 2004;100:950–7. © 2004 American Cancer Society.